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#1 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Today 18:12:33

Hi,

#6271. Find the value of x if

.

#2 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Today 18:05:14

Hi,

#3836. Find the median of the first 10 prime numbers.

#3 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 14:43:32

31) Bathyscaphe

Bathyscaphe, navigable diving vessel, developed by the Swiss educator and scientist Auguste Piccard (with assistance in later years from his son Jacques), designed to reach great depths in the ocean.

The first bathyscaphe, the FNRS 2, built in Belgium between 1946 and 1948, was damaged during 1948 trials in the Cape Verde Islands. Substantially rebuilt and greatly improved, the vessel was renamed FNRS 3 and carried out a series of descents under excellent conditions, including one of 4,000 metres (13,000 feet) into the Atlantic off Dakar, Senegal, on February 15, 1954. A second improved bathyscaphe, the Trieste, was launched on August 1, 1953, and dived to 3,150 metres (10,300 feet) in the same year. In 1958 the Trieste was acquired by the United States Navy, taken to California, and equipped with a new cabin designed to enable it to reach the seabed of the great oceanic trenches. Several successive descents were made into the Pacific by Jacques Piccard, and on January 23, 1960, Piccard, accompanied by Lieutenant Don Walsh of the U.S. Navy, dived to a record 10,916 metres (35,814 feet) in the Pacific’s Mariana Trench.

The bathyscaphe consists of two main components: a steel cabin, heavier than water and resistant to sea pressure, to accommodate the observers; and a light container called a float, filled with gasoline, which, being lighter than water, provides the necessary lifting power. The cabin and float are closely linked. On the surface, one or more ballast tanks filled with air provide enough lift to keep the bathyscaphe afloat. When the ballast tank valves are opened, air escapes and is replaced by water, making the whole device heavy enough to start its descent. The gasoline is in direct contact with the sea water and so is compressed at a rate almost exactly in proportion to the prevailing depth. Thus, the bathyscaphe gradually loses buoyancy as it descends, and the speed of its descent tends to increase rapidly. To slow down or to begin the reascent, the pilot releases ballast that consists essentially of iron shot stored in silos and held in place by electromagnets.

bathyscaphe_Trieste.jpg

#4 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Yesterday 01:41:19

234) Harry Brearley

Harry Brearley (18 February 1871 – 14 July 1948) was an English metallurgist, usually credited with the invention of "rustless steel" (later to be called "stainless steel" in the anglophone world).

Life

Brearley was born on 18 February 1871 in Sheffield, England, the son of John Brearley, a steelworker, and his wife, Jane Brearley née Senior. He left Woodside school at the age of twelve to enter his first employment as a labourer in his father's steelworks, later getting the post of general assistant in the company's chemical laboratory. He married Helen Theresa Crank (1874–1955) on 23 October 1895. For several years, in addition to his laboratory work, he studied at home and later in formal evening classes, to specialize in steel production techniques and associated chemical analysis methods.

By his early thirties, Brearley had earned a reputation as an experienced professional and for being very astute in the resolution of practical, industrial, metallurgical problems. It was in 1908, when two of Sheffield's principal steelmaking companies innovatively agreed to jointly finance a common research laboratory (Brown Firth Laboratories) that Harry Brearley was asked to lead the project.

After leaving Brown Firth, Brearley joined Brown Bayley's Steel Works, also in Sheffield; he became a director of the firm in 1925.

In 1941 Brearley created a charitable trust The Freshgate Trust Foundation, a grantmaking charity operating in Sheffield and South Yorkshire. His aim was to provide a "Fresh Gate" or new opportunity to people like him born into modest circumstances so that they may experience the finer things in life such as travel, education, the arts and music. The foundation is still operating as a registered charity awarding grants for charitable purposes in South Yorkshire.

Brearley died on 14 July 1948, at Torquay, a coastal resort town in Devon, south west England. He was cremated at Efford Crematorium, Efford, near Plymouth on 16 July 1948 and his ashes were scattered in the Efford Crematorium Garden of Remembrance.

In 2013, in the Sheffield University Varsity Brewing Challenge, Sheffield University named their beer – brewed by Thornbridge – Brearleys, to commemorate 100 years since Harry Brearley invented stainless steel.

Stainless steel

In the troubled years immediately before World War I, arms manufacturing increased significantly in the UK, but practical problems were encountered due to erosion (excessive wear) of the internal surfaces of gun barrels. Brearley began to research new steels which could better resist the erosion caused by high temperatures (rather than corrosion, as is often mentioned in this regard). He began to examine the addition of chromium to steel, which was known to raise the material’s melting point, as compared to the standard carbon steels.

The research concentrated on quantifying the effects of varying the levels of carbon (C, at concentrations around 0.2 weight %) and chromium (Cr, in the range of 6 to 15 weight %).

The accidental discovery

In order to undertake metallography to study the microstructure of the experimental alloys (the main factor responsible for a steel's mechanical properties) it was necessary to polish and etch the metallic samples produced. For a carbon steel, a dilute solution of nitric acid in alcohol is sufficient to produce the required etching, but Brearley found that the new chromium steels were very resistant to chemical attack.

Development

It was probably Harry Brearley’s upbringing in Sheffield, a city famous for the manufacture of cutlery since the 16th century, which led him to appreciate the potential of these new steels for applications not only in high-temperature service, as originally envisioned, but also in the mass-production of food-related applications such as cutlery, saucepans and processing equipment etc. Up to that time carbon-steel knives were prone to unhygienic rusting if they were not frequently polished and only expensive sterling silver or EPNS cutlery was generally available to avoid such problems. With this in mind Brearley extended his examinations to include tests with food acids such as vinegar and lemon juice, with very promising results.

Brearley initially called the new alloy "rustless steel"; the more euphonic "stainless steel" was suggested by Ernest Stuart of R.F. Mosley's, a local cutlery manufacturer at Portland Works, and eventually prevailed although Mosley's used the "Rusnorstain" trademark for many years. It is reported that the first true stainless steel, a 0.24wt% C, 12.8wt% Cr ferrous alloy, was produced by Brearley in an electric furnace on 13 August 1913. He was subsequently awarded the Iron and Steel Institute's Bessemer Gold Medal in 1920. The American Society for Metals gives the date for Brearley's creation of casting number 1008 (12.8% chromium, 0.44% manganese, 0.2% silicon, 0.24% carbon and 85.32% iron) as 20 August 1913.

Virtually all research projects into the further development of stainless steels were interrupted by the 1914–18 War, but efforts were renewed in the 1920s. Brearley had left the Brown Firth Laboratories in 1915, following disagreements regarding patent rights, but the research continued under the direction of his successor, Dr. W. H. Hatfield. It is Hatfield who is credited with the development, in 1924, of a stainless steel which even today is probably the widest-used alloy of this type, the so-called "18/8", which in addition to chromium, includes nickel (Ni) in its composition (18wt% Cr, 8wt% Ni).

harrybrearly.jpg

#5 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-11-17 21:36:59

Hi,

The solution #3834 is correct. Excellent, Monox D. I-Fly!

#3835. If the median of the data : 6, 7, x - 2, x, 17, 20 written in ascending order, is 16. Find the value of x.

#6 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-11-17 18:56:09

Hi,

The solution #3833 is correct. Neat work, Monox D. I-Fly!

#3834. If the median of the data : 24, 25, 26, x + 2, x + 3, 30, 31, 34 is 27.5, then find the value of x.

#7 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2017-11-17 15:04:41

Hi,

#6271. If the angles A,B, and C of Δ ABC form an increasing Arithmetic Progression, then find the value of sin B.

#8 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-11-17 14:57:25

Hi,

#3833. If the Arithmetic Mean of x, x + 3, x + 6, x + 9, and x + 12 is 10, what is the value of x?

#9 Re: Introductions » Hi forum » 2017-11-15 14:29:10

Hi laurenwest144,

It's a pleasure!

#11 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2017-11-15 08:42:17

Hi,

#6270. The value of acute angle

is such that
, then find the value of
.

#12 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-11-15 08:27:13

Hi,

#3832. If the mean of first n odd numbers is

, find the value of n.

#13 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2017-11-15 02:39:29

233) Jacques E. Brandenberger

Jacques Edwin Brandenberger (19 October 1872 – 13 July 1954) was a Swiss chemist and textile engineer who in 1908 invented cellophane. He was awarded the Franklin Institute's Elliott Cresson Medal in 1937.

Brandenberger was born in Zurich in 1872. He graduated from the University of Bern in 1895. In 1908 Brandenberger invented cellophane. Made from wood cellulose, cellophane was intended as a coating to make cloth more resistant to staining. After several years of further research and refinements he began production of cellophane in 1920 marketing it for industrial purposes. He sold the US rights to DuPont in 1923.

#14 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2017-11-14 02:01:59

30) Angstrom (Angstrom unit)

The angstrom, also known as the angstrom unit, is a measure of displacement equal to 0.0000000001 meter

. It is sometimes used to express wavelength s of visible light, ultraviolet (UV) light, X rays, and gamma rays.


The visible-light spectrum extends from approximately 7700 angstroms (red light) to 3900 angstroms (violet light). This corresponds to frequencies of 390 to 770 terahertz (THz), where 1 THz = 10 12 Hz. Ultraviolet radiation, X rays, and gamma rays have progressively shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies. Some gamma rays have wavelengths less than
0.0001

angstrom.

The angstrom is not often used nowadays. It has been largely superseded by the nanometer (nm), which is 10 times larger; 1 nm = 10 angstroms =

m.

wavelength-color.PNG

#15 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2017-11-13 15:19:04

Hi,

The solution #6268 is correct! Keep it up, Monox D. I-Fly!

#6269. Find the value of 'x' if

#16 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2017-11-13 00:49:25

232) Satya Nadella

Satya Narayana Nadella (born 19 August 1967) is an Indian American business executive. He is the current Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Microsoft, succeeding Steve Ballmer in 2014. Before becoming CEO, he was Executive Vice President of Microsoft's cloud and enterprise group, responsible for building and running the company's computing platforms, developer tools and cloud computing services.

Early life

Nadella was born in Hyderabad (now in the state of Telangana). His father, Bukkapuram Nadella Yugandher, was a civil servant of the Indian Administrative Service.

Nadella attended the Hyderabad Public School, Begumpet before attaining Bachelor of Engineering degree in electrical engineering from Manipal Institute of Technology (then part of Mangalore University) in 1988.

Nadella subsequently traveled to the U.S. to study for a Master of Science in Computer Science at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, receiving his degree in 1990. Later he received his MBA degree from University of Chicago

Nadella said he "always wanted to build things" and that "electrical engineering was a great way for me to go discover what turned out to become a passion."

Career

Sun Microsystems

Nadella worked at Sun Microsystems as a member of its technology staff prior to joining Microsoft in 1992.

Microsoft

At Microsoft, Nadella has led major projects that included the company's move to cloud computing and the development of one of the largest cloud infrastructures in the world.

Nadella worked as the senior vice-president of Research and Development (R&D) for the Online Services Division and vice-president of the Microsoft Business Division. Later, he was made the president of Microsoft's $19 billion Server and Tools Business and led a transformation of the company's business and technology culture from client services to cloud infrastructure and services. He has been credited for helping bring Microsoft's database, Windows Server and developer tools to its Azure cloud. The revenue from Cloud Services grew to $20.3 billion in June 2013 from $16.6 billion when he took over in 2011. He received $18 million in 2016 pay.

Nadella's 2013 base salary was nearly $700,000, for a total compensation, with stock bonuses, of $7.6 million.

Previous positions held by Nadella include:

President of the Server & Tools Division (9 February 2011 – February 2014)
Senior Vice-President of Research and Development for the Online Services Division (March 2007 – February 2011)
Vice-President of the Business Division
Corporate Vice-President of Business Solutions and Search & Advertising Platform Group
Executive Vice-President of Cloud and Enterprise group

On 4 February 2014, Nadella was announced as the new CEO of Microsoft, the third chief executive in the company's history, following Bill Gates and Steve Ballmer.

In October 2014, Nadella courted controversy when he made a statement that women should not ask for a raise and should trust the system. The statement was made while he was attending an event on Women in Computing in Phoenix, AZ. Nadella was roundly criticised for the statement and he apologised later on Twitter. He later sent an email to Microsoft employees admitting he was "Completely wrong".

Nadella changed the company’s direction after becoming CEO. His tenure has emphasized openness to working with companies and technologies with which Microsoft also competes, including Apple Inc., Salesforce, IBM, and Dropbox. In contrast to previous Microsoft campaigns against the Linux operating system, Nadella proclaimed that "Microsoft ♥ Linux", and in 2016, Microsoft joined the Linux Foundation as a Platinum member.

Under Nadella, Microsoft revised its mission statement to "empower every person and organization on the planet to achieve more". In comparison to founder Bill Gates's "a PC on every desk and in every home, running Microsoft software", Nadella says that it is an enduring mission, rather than a temporal goal. His key goal has been transforming Microsoft’s corporate culture into one that values continual learning and growth. He has cited the book Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol Dweck as inspiration for this philosophy around a "growth mindset".

Nadella's leadership of Microsoft included a series of high profile acquisitions of other companies, to redirect Microsoft's focus. His first major acquisition was of Mojang, a Swedish game company best known for the popular freeform computer building game Minecraft, in late 2014, for $2.5 billion. Minecraft was notably a cross-platform game, with versions running on Apple's iOS mobile devices, and the Sony PlayStation dedicated gaming console, as well as Microsoft's Xbox. He followed that in 2016 by purchasing Xamarin and LinkedIn.

In the years since becoming CEO, Nadella is viewed as having done well, with Microsoft stock having risen more than 60% since he took over, and achieving an all-time high.

Personal life

In 1992, Nadella married Anupama, daughter of his father's Indian Administrative Service (IAS) batchmate, K.R. Venugopal. The couple has three children, a son and two daughters, and live in Bellevue, Washington.

Nadella is an avid reader of American and Indian poetry. He also has an interest in cricket (his passion growing up), having played on his school team. He has mentioned having learned something about leadership and teamwork from cricket. He has a cricket bat signed by Sachin Tendulkar as his favorite personal possession.

In June 2016, it was announced Nadella would publish his first book, with a publish date planned for fall 2017. Titled 'Hit Refresh', the book will explore his life, Microsoft and how technology will shape the future. The profits from the book will be put towards Microsoft Philanthropies where it will go on to help nonprofits.

28517081_h32221057_wide-6382530f6cef158f1b54df809505976d2976112c-s800-c85.jpg

#17 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2017-11-12 19:51:57

Hi,

The solution #6267 is correct. Neat work, Monox D. I-Fly!

#6268. If

, find the value of x.

#18 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2017-11-12 14:40:11

Hi,

The solution #6266 is perfect. Excellent, Monox D. I-Fly!

#6267. If

, then find the value of
.

#19 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-11-11 00:29:16

Hi,

#3831. Find the mean of first 'n' odd natural number.

#20 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2017-11-11 00:21:02

Hi,

#6266. If

, then find the value of
.

#21 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2017-11-11 00:12:51

231) Micheal Phelps

The Most Decorated Olympian Of All Time

By the time he retired at Rio 2106 at the age of 31, Michael Phelps had collected a total of 23 golds, three silvers and two bronzes at the Olympics, a record-breaking haul that looks unlikely to be bettered for many years to come.

The most decorated athlete of all at Rio 2016, where he won five golds and a silver, Phelps suffered attention deficit/hyperactivity ­disorder as a child and was encouraged to take up swimming at the age of seven to control his energy. Over the years he developed into a champion swimmer, beating record after record in every age category in which he competed.

From Sydney to Athens

Phelps began to forge his Olympic legend at the age of 15, when he finished fifth in the 200m butterfly final at Sydney 2000. Reflecting on that achievement, the ever-demanding swimmer said: “It was great, I was fifth, that’s a pretty big accomplishment. But I didn’t want it. I wanted more. I was within half a second of medaling – it was literally, if I would have taken it out a little bit faster, maybe I would have had a chance.”

“There are reasons why I swam every holiday, every Christmas, every birthday,” added Phelps, explaining why he was the most dedicated of swimmers. “I was trying to be as prepared as I could, and I tried to see what I could really do and what my potential was. I just really did kind of whatever it took.”

Phelps had won five world titles by the time he opened his Olympic account at Athens 2004. Competing in eight events in the Greek capital, he took gold in the 100m and 200m butterfly, 200m and 400m individual medley and the 4x100m and 4x200m freestyle relays with his USA team-mates. He also won bronze in the 200m freestyle and the 4x100m freestyle relay.

His eight-medal haul matched the single Summer Games record set by Soviet gymnast Aleksandr Ditatyn, at Moscow 1980, while his tally of golds was only one fewer than the record seven won by his fellow countryman Mark Spitz, in the pool at Munich 1972.

“Everyone was comparing me to Mark Spitz. But for me – I still say this a lot – it was never about beating Mark Spitz,” Phelps later said. “It never was. It was about becoming the first Michael Phelps, not the second Mark Spitz. And that’s truly what I always dreamed of as a kid. I dreamed of doing something that no one had ever done before.”

Beijing Eight

Another 12 titles came his way at the 2005 and 2007 FINA World Aquatics Championships, held in Montreal and Melbourne respectively, a sign of things to come at Beijing 2008, where he took gold in all eight events he contested. It was a feat unprecedented in any sport in the history of the Games.

In topping the podium in the 100m and 200m butterfly, 200m freestyle, 200m and 400m individual medleys and the 4x100m and 4x200m freestyle relays and the 4x100m medley relay, the voracious Phelps posted seven world records and an Olympic record in the 100m butterfly. His exploits in the Chinese capital made him the most decorated of all Olympians with 14 gold medals.

In the years that followed, the Bob Bowman prodigy became the most decorated swimmer in the history of the world championships, winning five more titles in Rome in 2009 and a further four in Shanghai two years later to take his Worlds medal collection to 33, 26 of them golds.

Four Games And Out?

In making his fourth Olympic appearance at London 2012, where he announced his impending retirement, Phelps became the first male swimmer to win the 100m butterfly and 200m individual medley titles at three consecutive Games. As well as landing the 4x200m freestyle relay title, he took silver in the 200m butterfly and the 4x100m freestyle relay before claiming an 18th Olympic gold in the 4x100m medley.

Speaking after that final success, an emotional Phelps said: “It’s tough to put into words right now, but I finished my career how I wanted to. Through the ups and downs of my career I’ve still been able to do everything that I’ve ever wanted to accomplish. I’ve been able to do things that no-one else has ever been able to do and this is one of the funniest ways to finish it, in a relay.”

Phelps’ London exploits took his career tally of Olympic medals to a record 23, moving him past the previous best of 18, amassed by Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina in the 1950s and 60s.

A Rousing Return

Despite having announced his retirement, Phelps could not resist the lure of the pool, and was back in training in April 2014, his sights set on Rio 2016. Turning in a typically brilliant performance at the U.S. Trials in Omaha in late June 2016, he qualified for three individual and three relay events.

Still the world-record holder for the 100m butterfly (49.82 seconds), 200m butterfly (1:51.51), 400m individual medley (4:03.84) and the 4x100m (3:08.24) and 4x200m freestyle (6:58.55) relays, the greatest swimmer of them all was in determined mood ahead of Rio 2016.

“I’m 31 years old and swimming faster than I ever have before,” he warned, letting everyone know that he was still hungry to add to his record tally of Olympic titles and medals.

Phelps began his Rio campaign by swimming a decisive second leg in the 4x100m freestyle relay, helping the USA win gold ahead of France and Australia, the 19th of his storied career. The 20th and 21st came within an hour of each other two days later, as he won the 200m butterfly title for the third time and the 4x200m freestyle for a fourth.

After the second of those victories, and having secured his status as one of the heroes of the Rio Games, he emerged from the water and sat on his starting block, soaking up the adulation of the crowd.

Two days later, he won the 200m medley for the fourth time in a row, joining compatriots Al Oerter (discus) and Carl Lewis (long jump) as the only athletes to have won the same individual event at four consecutive Games.

“This all started and began with one little dream as a kid to change the sport of swimming, try to do something nobody has ever done,” he said after making it gold number 22.

The following day he shared silver with close friends and rivals Chad Le Clos and Laszlo Cseh behind Singaporean youngster Joseph Schooling in the 100m butterfly.

“Chad and I have raced each other quite a few times in the last four years, and as for Laszlo and me, I can’t even remember the first time we competed against each other,” he said after securing a 27th Olympic medal. “So it’s kind of special, and a great way for me to finish my last individual race.”

Phelps’ last race of all came on 13 August, when he made a typically brilliant contribution to the USA’s victory in the 4x100m medley, swimming a superb butterfly leg en route to collecting his 23rd Olympic gold and 28th medal overall.

“Being able to close the door on this sport how I wanted to – that’s why I’m happy now,” Phelps said after completing his six-medal haul in Rio. “I was a little kid with a dream, which turned into a couple of medals. Just being able to finish this way is special because now I’m able to start the next chapter in my life.”

In December 2016, Phelps posed with every one of his Olympic medals for the magazine Sports Illustrated. In total they weighed eight kilograms, a staggering haul that will take some matching.

Phelps_Michael_150x250.jpg?mh=250&mw=150

#22 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2017-11-10 07:49:33

29) United Nations

Overview

The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945.  It is currently made up of 193 Member States.  The mission and work of the United Nations are guided by the purposes and principles contained in its founding Charter.

Member States

Each of the 193 Member States of the United Nations is a member of the General Assembly.  States are admitted to membership in the UN by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.

Main Organs

The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the UN Secretariat.  All were established in 1945 when the UN was founded.

Leadership

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is a symbol of the Organization's ideals and a spokesman for the interests of the world's peoples, in particular the poor and vulnerable. The current Secretary-General of the UN, and the ninth occupant of the post, is Mr. António Guterres of Portugal, who took office on 1 January 2017. The UN Charter describes the Secretary-General as "chief administrative officer" of the Organization.

Secretariat

The Secretariat, one of the main organs of the UN, is organized along departmental lines, with each department or office having a distinct area of action and responsibility. Offices and departments coordinate with each other to ensure cohesion as they carry out the day to day work of the Organization in offices and duty stations around the world.  At the head of the United Nations Secretariat is the Secretary-General.

Funds, Programmes, Specialized Agencies and Others

The UN system, also known unofficially as the "UN family", is made up of the UN itself and many affiliated programmes, funds, and specialized agencies, all with their own membership, leadership, and budget.  The programmes and funds are financed through voluntary rather than assessed contributions. The Specialized Agencies are independent international organizations funded by both voluntary and assessed contributions.

united_nations_logo_295.jpg

#23 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2017-11-09 16:23:16

Hi,

The solution #6264 is correct. Brilliant, Monox D. I-Fly!

#6265. If

is an acute angle such that
, then find the value of

.

#24 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2017-11-09 03:02:55

230) David Ogilvy

David Ogilvy, in full David Mackenzie Ogilvy (born June 23, 1911, West Horsley, Surrey, England - died July 21, 1999, near Bonnes, France), British advertising executive known for his emphasis on creative copy and campaign themes, founder of the agency of Ogilvy & Mather.

Ogilvy was the son of a classics scholar and broker, but financial reverses left the family in straitened circumstance when he was a boy. Nonetheless, he earned scholarships to Fettes College, Edinburgh, and to Christ Church, Oxford. After leaving Oxford without a degree, Ogilvy found work as an apprentice chef at an exclusive Parisian hotel and as a stove salesman. Then a brother working in the British advertising agency of Mather & Crowther offered him a job. He soon became an account executive and went to the United States to learn American advertising techniques. While there, Ogilvy worked for the American pollster George Gallup; he later credited much of his success in advertising to this experience.

During World War II Ogilvy served in British Intelligence in Washington, D.C., and for a time was second secretary at the British embassy there. After the war, he tried farming in the Amish area of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, but, being unable to make a living at it, he turned again to advertising. In 1948 Ogilvy and Anderson Hewitt formed Hewitt, Ogilvy, Benson & Mather, with some financial help from his former English employers and another English advertising agency. They started out with British clients, such as the manufacturers of Wedgwood china and Rolls-Royce. Ogilvy’s successful ad campaigns for early clients soon garnered for the agency such major American ad accounts as General Foods and American Express. In 1966, with Ogilvy at the helm, the firm of Ogilvy & Mather became one of the first advertising firms to go public. The company expanded throughout the 1970s and ’80s, and in 1989 it was bought by WPP Group PLC. Ogilvy was then made chairman of WPP, but he stepped down from that position three years later, retiring to a chateau in France.

Ogilvy’s legacy includes the concept of “branding,” a strategy that closely links a product name with a product in the hope of engendering “brand” loyalty in the consumer, and a distinctive style that bore his personal stamp - among his notable ads were those for Hathaway shirts, featuring a distinguished-looking man with an eyepatch, and for Rolls-Royce, which proclaimed “At sixty miles an hour the loudest noise in this new Rolls-Royce comes from the electric clock.” He wrote two influential books on advertising - Confessions of an Advertising Man (1963) and Ogilvy on Advertising (1983) -and An Autobiography (1997; a revised edition of a book originally published as Blood, Brains, and Beer, 1978).

Ogilvy insisted that it is better not to advertise than to use poorly designed or poorly written advertisements.

25181.jpg

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