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#1 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Today 01:12:17

Hi,

#7119. What are Albright and Wilson known for?

#7120. The first prototype electron microscope, capable of four-hundred-power magnification, was developed by the physicist Ernst Ruska and the electrical engineer Max Knoll. In which year was it?

#2 Jokes » Hippopotamus Jokes » Today 00:40:16

ganesh
Replies: 0

Q: What's a hippos favourite kind of music?
A: Hip-hop.
* * *
Q: How do you make sure a hippo is telling you the truth?
A: Make him take the Hippocratic Oath.
* * *
Q: How can you get a hippo to do whatever you want?
A: Hipponotism.
* * *
Q: What do you call a naughty hippopotamus in nature?
A: Hip Hop Hooray...Ho..Hey...Ho.
* * *
Q: Why did the hippo cross the road?
A: To prove to the possum that it could be done!
* * *
Q: What do you call a mean hippo?
A: A hippocrite.
* * *
Q: When does a hippo go "mooooo"?
A: When it is learning a new language!
* * *
Q: What happens when hippos get too cold?
A: They get hippothermia.
* * *
Q: What do you call a lazy hippo?
A: A hippopota-mess!
* * *
Q: What is as big as a hippo but weighs nothing?
A: Its shadow!
* * *
Q: What do you call a fashionable hippopotamus?
A: A hippo-ster.
* * *
Q: How do you say hello to a hippopotamus?
A: Hi-po!
* * *
Q: What do you call a long haired hippo?
A: A hippy.
* * *
Q: How do you inoculate a hippo?
A: With a hippodermic needle.
* * *

#3 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Today 00:28:41

410) Mary Anderson (Inventor)

Alabama native Mary Anderson (1866-1953) is credited with inventing the first operational windshield wiper. In her 1903 patent, she called her invention a window cleaning device for electric cars and other vehicles. Although her version of the device was never put into production, it closely resembles the windshield wiper found on many early car models.

Mary Anderson was born on Burton Hill Plantation in Greene County on February 19, 1866, to John C. and Rebecca Anderson. Mary's father died when she was four, but Mary and her sister, Fannie, and mother continued to live off the proceeds from his estate. In 1889, they moved to Birmingham and built the Fairmont Apartment building at 1211, 21st Street South on the corner of Highland Avenue.

Anderson left home in 1893 at age 27 to operate a cattle ranch and vineyard in Fresno, California. By 1900, she had returned to Birmingham to help care for her ailing aunt; she once again lived in the Fairmont Apartments with her mother, her sister, and also now her brother-in-law, G. P. Thornton. Anderson's aunt brought to the apartment house with her a number of large trunks that no one was allowed to examine. After her death, the trunks revealed a collection of gold and jewelry, the sale of which allowed the family to live in considerable financial comfort.

Early in the twentieth century, Anderson traveled to New York City. While riding in a trolley there, she noticed that the motorman had to remove snow and sleet from the front window by stopping the trolley, getting out, and cleaning the windows by hand. Back in Birmingham, Anderson began creating a design for a device very similar to a modern windshield wiper that operated via a lever from inside the vehicle.

Anderson had a model of her design manufactured and patented her design (number 743,801) on November 10, 1903. She then tried to sell her design to a production company. In 1905, she wrote a Canadian firm about purchasing the patent, but the company saw no commercial value in the device and declined to produce it. This attempt was apparently the only one Anderson made to market her invention. By the 1920s, the three Anderson women were living independently again on the inheritance from Anderson's aunt after the death of her brother-in-law. Anderson was managing the apartment building at the time of her death on June 27, 1953, while at her summer home in Monteagle, Tennessee. She was buried in Elmwood Cemetery in Birmingham.

wiper_is_1.png

#4 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Today 00:13:59

230) Fiber reinforced plastic

Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP), also known as fiber reinforced polymer, is in fact a composite material constituting a polymer matrix blended with certain reinforcing materials, such as fibers. The fibers are generally basalt, carbon, glass or aramid; in certain cases asbestos, wood or paper can also be used.

The Formation of FRPs

Going back to the basics, there are two processes through which a polymer is developed: step-growth polymerization and addition polymerization. Composite plastics are formed when a couple of homogeneous materials possessing different characteristics bond together to produce a final product with the desired mechanical and material properties. These composite materials can be of two types, fiber reinforced and particle reinforced.

Fiber reinforced plastic is that category wherein the mechanical strength and elasticity of the plastics are enhanced through incorporation of fiber materials. The matrix, which is the core material devoid of fiber reinforcement, is hard but comparatively weaker, and must be toughened through the addition of powerful reinforcing fibers or filaments. It is the fiber which is critical in differentiating the parent polymer from the FRP.

Most of these plastics are formed through various molding processes wherein a mold or a tool is used to place the fiber pre-form, constituting dry fiber or fiber containing a specific proportion of resin. After ‘wetting’ dry fibers with resin, “curing” takes place, wherein the fibers and matrix assume the mold’s shape. In this stage, there is occasional application of heat and pressure. The different methods include compression molding, bladder molding, mandrel wrapping, autoclave, filament winding, and wet layup, amongst others. 

Common Properties of FRPs

These composite materials typically exhibit low weight and high strength.  They are so strong that the automotive industry is increasingly interested in using them to replace some of the metal in cars.  Fiber reinforced plastics can be as strong as some metals but they are much lighter and therefore more fuel efficient.

It is possible to customize the properties of fiber reinforced plastics to suit a wide range of requirements. Fiber reinforced polymers typically have impressive electrical and compression properties and display high grade environmental resistance. One important factor that makes these materials a favorite among different industrial sectors is the manufacturing process, which is quite cost-effective. The rate of productivity is medium to high and a ready bonding is exhibited with dissimilar materials.

The other exclusive properties of fiber reinforced plastics include commendable thermal insulation, structural integrity, and fire hardness along with UV radiation stability and resistance to chemicals and other corrosive materials.

The characteristics of fiber reinforced plastics are dependent upon certain factors like mechanical properties of the matrix and fiber, the relative volume of both these components, and the length of the fiber and orientation within the matrix.

Common Fibers include:

(i) Glass is a very good insulating material and, when blended with the matrix, forms fiberglass or glass reinforced plastic. Compared to carbon fiber, it is both less strong and rigid and less brittle and expensive.

(ii) Carbon based fiber reinforced plastics offer high tensile strength, chemical resistance, stiffness, and temperature tolerance along with low thermal expansion and weight.  The carbon atoms form crystals which lie mostly along the fiber’s long axis. This alignment makes the material strong by making the ratio of strength to volume high.

(iii) Aramid is a fiber component that results in robust and heat-resistant synthetic fibers. It finds wide applications in many industries.

Fiber reinforced plastics find wide applications in the automotive, aerospace, construction and marine sectors. Glass fiber reinforced plastics are a very good option for the power industry as they are devoid of any magnetic field and can offer considerable resistance to electric sparks. The uses are diversifying, a phenomenon evident in the entry of carbon fibers in sports goods, gliders, and fishing rods, along with Japan’s application of FRPs to hydraulic gates.

frp_structures-resized-600-1.png

#5 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Yesterday 15:54:48

Hi,

.

#7087. Evaluate : 32% of 500 + 162% of 50.

#6 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Yesterday 15:44:11

Hi,

#4252. A man spends 28% of his salary on food. From the remaining, he spent 1/6th on rent and sends 3/8th to his mother. If he is left with $5280, what amount he sends to his mother?

#7 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Mensuration » Yesterday 15:24:00

Hi,

M # 454. The Lateral Surface Area of a Cylinder is 1056 square centimeters and its height is 16 centimeters. Find it's Volume. Use

.

#8 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Yesterday 03:42:25

409) Samuel Hunter Christie

B. London, England, 22 March 1784; d. Twickenham, London, 24 January 1865),

Magnetism.

Christie was the only son of James Christie, founder of the well-known auction galleries, and his second wife, formerly Mrs. Urquhart. Samuel was educated at Walworth School, Surrey, and Trinity College, Cambridge, which he entered as a sizar in October 1800. He was active in athletics and was a brother officer with Lord Palmerston in the grenadier company of University Volunteers. In 1805 he took his bachelor’s degree as second wrangler and shared the Smith’s prize with Thomas Turton. Appointed third mathematical assistant in Woolwich Military Academy in July 1806, Christie became professor of mathematics there in June 1838. He made major revisions in the curriculum, raising it to a high standard.

Christie was elected a fellow of the Royal Society on 12 January 1826, frequently served on the Society’s council, and was its secretary from 1837 to 1854. He married twice and by his second wife, Margaret Malcom, was the father of the future Sir William H. M. Christie, astronomer royal from 1881 to 1922. Samuel H. Christie was a vice-president of the Royal Astronomical Society and one of the visitors of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Owing to ill health, he retired from his professorship in 1854 and moved to Lausanne.

Almost all of Christie’s investigations were related to terrestrial magnetism. In June 1821, while studying the influence of an unmagnetized iron plate on a compass, he discovered “that the simple rotation of the iron had a considerable influence on its magnetic properties.”  Although he delayed making a detailed announcement of his results until June 1825, Christie did refer to this discovery in June 1824. His work was independent of, and prior to, Arago’s report of the magnetic influence of rotating metals. From his experiments he concluded that since “the direction of magnetic polarity, which iron acquires by rotation about an axis… has always reference to the direction of the terrestrial magnetic forces,… this magnetism is communicated from the earth.” He then went on to speculate that the earth in turn receives its magnetism from the sun.

In other papers Christie reported on a method for separating the effects of temperature from observations of the diurnal variation of the earth’s magnetic field. In addition he speculated that this variation is caused by thermoelectric currents in the earth produced by the sun’s heating. Christie also observed a direct influence of the aurora on the dip and horizontal intensity of the earth’s magnetic field. As a recognized authority, Christie prepared a “Report on the State of Our Knowledge Respecting the Magnetism of the Earth” for the 1833 meeting of the British Association, reported on the magnetic observations made by naval officers during various polar voyages, and was the senior reporter on Alexander von Humboldt’s proposal that cooperating magnetic observatories be founded in British possessions.

Christie’s paper “Experimental Determination of the Laws of Magneto-electric Induction…” was the Bakerian lecture for 1833. In it Christie showed that “the conducting power, varies as the squares of [the wires’] diameters directly, and as their lengths inversely.” He also concluded that voltaelectricity, thermoelectricity, and magnetoelectricity are all conducted according to the same law, which lent further support to the theory that all these electricities are identical. In this paper Christie also gave the first description of the instrument that came to be known as the Wheatstone bridge.

Samuel_Hunter_Christie.jpg

#9 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 00:13:30

229) Rotterdam

Rotterdam, major European port and second largest city of the Netherlands. It lies about 19 miles (30 km) from the North Sea, to which it is linked by a canal called the New Waterway. The city lies along both banks of the New Meuse (Nieuwe Maas) River, which is a northern distributary of the Rhine River.

The name Rotterdam was first mentioned in 1283, when a small tract of reclaimed land was created by draining the mouth of the Rotte River (another distributary in the Rhine River delta). Rotterdam developed as a fishing village and was chartered in 1328. In 1340 the town received permission to dig a canal to the Schie (another tributary of the New Meuse River), and it became the major port of the province. In the 17th century, when the discovery of the sea route to the Indies gave an enormous impetus to Dutch commerce and shipping, Rotterdam expanded its harbours and accommodations along the Meuse. Before the end of the century it was, after Amsterdam, the second merchant city of the country.

Rotterdam adjusted to the changed circumstances after the French occupation, which, from 1795 until the fall of Napoleon in 1815, halted most trade. Transit trade grew more important, and between 1866 and 1872 the New Waterway was dug from Rotterdam to the North Sea to accommodate larger oceangoing steamships. In 1877 the city was connected with the southern Netherlands by a railroadcrossing the Meuse River. The simultaneous construction of a traffic bridge across the Meuse opened that river’s south bank, where large harbour facilities, extending westward, sprang up between 1892 and 1898. Between 1906 and 1930 Rotterdam’s Waal Harbour was built; it became the largest dredged harbour in the world.

During World War II Rotterdam’s city centre and more than one-third of the port’s facilities were destroyed by the Germans. The city hall (1918), the main post office (1923), and the stock exchangewere among the few public buildings that escaped destruction. The 15th-century Grote Kerk (Great Church), or St. Laurenskerk (St. Lawrence’s Church), was burned in 1940 but was later restored.

Rotterdam literally rose from its ashes after its devastation by bombing during World War II. A totally new inner city was laid out, with a spacious and functional architecture oriented toward the river and a series of experiments at complete city planning that have attracted both professional and touristic admiration. The Lijnbaan Shopping Centre became the prototype for similar centres in Europe and America that allowed only pedestrian traffic.

Rotterdam’s economy is still almost completely based on shipping. The port lies at the heart of the densely populated and industrialized triangle of London, Paris, and the German Ruhr district and at the mouths of two important rivers (the Rhine and the Meuse), yet it is also open to the North Sea, the world’s most heavily navigated sea. The amount of sea-transported goods that pass through Rotterdam’s harbour and that of its outport, Europoort, is the largest in the world in terms of capacity, with much of its cargoes consisting of crude oil or petroleum products. Rotterdam is also one of the largest grain and general-cargo harbours on the continent. It is a major transhipment port for inland Europe, with tens of thousands of Rhine River barges using its facilities.

Since the late 1940s Rotterdam’s oil-processing, or petrochemical, industry has grown in importance. The city has several large oil refineries. Pipelines from Rotterdam transport seaborne crude oil, refinery products, ethylene and natural gas, and naphtha to Amsterdam, the province of Limburg, the southern island district of Zeeland, the Belgian city of Antwerp, and to Germany. Rotterdam was served by Zestienhoven Airport to the northwest of the city, (now Rotterdam The Hague Airport.)

Cultural institutions in Rotterdam include De Doelen concert hall (1966), noted for its acoustic perfection. The Boymans-van Beuningen Museum has a remarkable collection of paintings by Dutch and Flemish masters. Other museums in the city include the Museum of Ethnology, the Prince Henry Maritime Museum, and the Historical Museum. The city is also the home of the Erasmus University of Rotterdam (1973). The Royal Rotterdam Zoological Garden Foundation is a well-known zoo.

rotterdam-300x200.jpg

#10 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2018-10-16 21:22:45

228) Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs

Introduction

A compact fluorescent light bulb is a device that creates light using about one fourth as much power as a conventional, incandescent light bulb for a given amount of light. Large amounts of electricity are used to power light bulbs in industrial countries. Because most electricity worldwide is generated by burning coal, which releases the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2), replacing incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) can reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted, especially in warmer climates, and have an impact on the amount of global climate change. CFLs contain small amounts of the toxic metal mercury and are more expensive than incandescent light bulbs. They last longer than incandescents and, averaged over the lifetime of the device, cost less to run.

Historical Background and Scientific Foundations

Conventional light bulbs operate on the principle of heating a small wire or filament until it glows brightly. Most of the energy consumed by an incandescent bulb is turned into heat, not light. Fluorescent light bulbs operate on the principle that certain gas mixtures, such as mercury vapor mixed with xenon or argon, emit ultra-violet radiation (a form of light invisible to the human eye) when excited by an electric current. A coating on the inside of a glass tube filled with such a gas can absorb the ultraviolet radiation and re-radiate it as visible light.

Incandescent bulbs convert about 90% of the electricity they consume into heat, whereas fluorescent light bulbs convert only about 30% into heat. The result is that a fluorescent bulb uses much less electricity to provide a given amount of light. Heat from light bulbs is often undesirable. In air-conditioned buildings, for example, electricity must be purchased to remove the heat produced by interior lighting, so owners pay twice, once to make the unwanted heat and once to remove it.

Scientists first noticed the production of electromagnetic radiation by electrified gases in the late nineteenth century. The invention of the commercial fluorescent light bulb is credited to German inventor Edmund Germer (1901–1987), who in 1926 patented a fluorescent bulb that used an inner bulb coating to convert ultraviolet light to relatively pleasing white light.

Fluorescent lights have traditionally been designed as long tubes, either straight or looping, because lower electric currents (which are easier to produce and safer for the consumer) are needed to produce a given amount of light from a longer tube. Small or “compact” fluorescent light bulbs that could be screwed into a conventional light socket would require either complex, maze-like glassware to pack long gas paths into small volumes or high currents that would waste power.

In the 1970s, a number of inventors sought solutions to these design barriers. Several designs that worked in the laboratory were produced, but no commercially viable design was put forward until the idea of bending a tube into a double-spiral shape was invented by Edward Hammer at the General Electric Corporation in 1976. Although it was more difficult and expensive to make such tubes than to make conventional bulbs, gradual improvements in technique made it possible for spiral-bulb compact fluorescents to be marketed starting in 1995.

Impacts and Issues

CFLs cost much more per unit than incandescent light bulbs, but last longer: about 7,500 hours versus only 1,000 for an incandescent bulb. Because they use less power, burden air conditioning less, and last longer, they end up costing less despite their higher up-front cost. A savings of $30 or more per bulb is cited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when CFLs are used instead of traditional incandescent bulbs. Because most electricity is generated by burning coal and CFLs save electricity, CFLs tend to cause less carbon dioxide to be emitted, which helps mitigate global climate change.

Globally, electric lighting causes carbon dioxide emissions equivalent to 70% of those from passenger vehicles. Thus, if every American home replaced just one incandescent bulb with a CFL, the carbon dioxide savings would be roughly equivalent to taking 800,000 cars off the road. Because of the cost and other advantages, some governments have considered, or have taken, action to speed the replacement of incandescent with fluorescent bulbs. In 2007, Australia became the first nation to announce that it would phase out incandescent bulbs entirely by 2012. Also in 2007, California was considering legislation that would ban the sale of incandescent light bulbs between 25 watts and 150 watts.

WORDS TO KNOW

GREENHOUSE GASES: Gases that cause Earth to retain more thermal energy by absorbing infrared light emitted by Earth's surface. The most important greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and various artificial chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons. All but the latter are naturally occurring, but human activity over the last several centuries has significantly increased the amounts of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in Earth's atmosphere, causing global warming and global climate change.

ULTRAVIOLET: Light that vibrates or oscillates at a frequency of between 7.5 x {10}^{14} and 3 x {10}^{16} Hz (oscillations per second), more rapid than the highest-frequency color visible to the human eye, which is violet (hence the term “ultraviolet,” literally above-violet). Ultraviolet light is absorbed by ozone (O3) in Earth's stratosphere. This absorption serves both to shield the surface from this biologically harmful form of radiation and to heat the stratosphere, with important consequences for the global climate system.

WATT: Unit of power or rate of expenditure of energy. One watt equals 1 joule of energy per second. A 100-watt light bulb dissipates 100 joules of energy every second, i.e., uses 100 watts of power. Earth receives power from the sun at a rate of approximately 1.75 x {10}^{17} watts.

American consumers have been slow to adopt CFLs: only 2% to 5% of the 2 billion light bulbs sold in the United States each year are CFLs. Critics have pointed out that CFLs, like all fluorescent bulbs, contain the highly toxic metal mercury—about 5 milligrams (mg) per bulb. About 600 million fluorescent bulbs containing a total of 13,600 kg (30,000 lb) of mercury are thrown into U.S. landfills every year. However, because coal-burning also releases mercury and because CFLs prevent the burning of so much coal, an incandescent bulb causes the release, on average, of about 3.7 times more mercury per hour of lighting provided than does a CFL.

A more efficient, less toxic, and longer-lasting lighting technology—light-emitting diodes (LEDs)—is currently under development. LEDs remain relatively expensive, however, and are unlikely to displace CFLs in most applications in the near future.

Because of their mercury content, broken CFLs should not be touched with bare hands. They should also be recycled as toxic waste, not dumped in ordinary trash. Such dumping is illegal in California and several other U.S. states.

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#12 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2018-10-16 15:00:29

Hi,

#4251. Ram spends 50% of his annual income on household items, 20% of his income on buying clothes, 5% of his annual income on medicines and saves $11250. What is Ram's annual income?

#13 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Mensuration » 2018-10-16 14:41:20

Hi,

M # 453. The Volume of metal of a cylindrical pipe is 748 cubic centimeters. The length of the pipe is 14 centimeters and its external radius is 9 centimeters. Find its thickness. Use

.

#14 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2018-10-16 01:27:45

408) Hans Berger

(B. Neuses bei Coburg, Germany, 21 May 1873; d. Jena, Germany, 1 June 1941)

Psychiatry, electroencephalography.

The son of Paul Friedrich Berger and of Anna Rückert, Berger graduated from the Gymnasium at Coburg and then entered the University of Jena in 1892. After one semester in astronomy he transferred to medicine. In 1897 he became assistant to Otto Binswanger at the university’s psychiatric clinic. He was appointed chief doctor in 1912 and director and professor of psychiatry in 1919; he retired in 1938. His associates described Berger as punctual, strict, demanding, and reserved.

The central theme in Berger’s work was the search for the correlation between objective activity of the brain and subjective psychic phenomena. In his work on blood circulation in the brain (1901) he described his efforts to gain insight into this correlation through plethysmographic registration of the brain pulsations. He investigated the influence of the heartbeat, respiration, vasomotor functions, and position of the head and body on brain pulsations, which were measured through an opening, made by trephination, in the skull. Berger also studied the effects of a number of medications—such as camphor, digitoxin, caffeine, cocaine, and morphine—on brain pulsations. The results of these investigations were disappointing, yet Berger continued his search for measurable expressions of psychic conditions through experiments on blood circulation (1904, 1907).

After 1907 Berger tried to discover a correlation between the temperature of the brain and psychic processes. He postulated that through dissimilation in the cortex, psychic energy (P-Energie) develops, along with heat, electrical energy, and neural energy. These experiments also came to a dead end, according to Berger’s publication of 1910. Nevertheless, in his lectures on psychophysiology, given from 1905 on and published in 1921, the problem of P-Energie Continued to hold his interest. His tenaciousness in this matter is apparent from a memo in his journal dated 14 December 1921, in which he says that the goal of his research continues to be the correlation between the expressions of the human mind and the processes of dissimilation the in brain.

After his disappointing experiments measuring the blood circulation and temperature of the brain, Berger (following his return from World War I) devoted himself mainly to the measurement of the brain’s electrical activity. In 1902 he had taken measurements of electrical activity above skull defects with the Lippmann capillary electrometer, and later with the Edelmann galvanometer. In 1910, however, Berger mentioned in his journal that the results of these measurements were not satisfactory. Therefore, until 1925 he followed two methods of research: stimulation of the motor cortex through a defect in the skull, measuring the time between stimulus and contralateral motor reaction, and registration of the spontaneous potential differences of the brain surface. After 1925 Berger no longer used the stimulation method. He specialized, with ever increasing skill, in registering the spontaneous fluctuations in electrical potential that could be recorded through the skull from the cortex. In his first publication on electro-encephalography (1929), he called 6 July 1924 the date of discovery of the human electroencephalogram. The EEG, the curves of the electrical potentials measured again and again between two points of the skull, did not give him a closer insight into the correlation between the electrical activity of the brain and psychic energy. However, electroencephalography has proved to be of ever increasing importance in diagnosing and treating neurological diseases (epilepsy, brain tumors, traumata).

Berger’s work was strongly influenced by the exact psychology of the nineteenth century. In developing his psychophysiology, Berger used the ideas of J. F. Herbart, R. H. Lotze, G. T. Fechner, W. Wundt, and the Danish psychologist A. Lehmann as a base. In the experimental field, Berger was in all aspects a follower of A. Mosso. Berger’s experiments on brain circulation and brain temperature were identical with Mosso’s, and his publications on these subjects bore the same titles as Mosso’s papers.

In developing electroencephalography, Berger was influenced by Caton and by Nemminski. Caton had measured electrical potentials on the exposed cortex of experimental animals in 1875, but he was not able to record these phenomena graphically. Nemminski recorded the first electrocerebrogram on dogs with the skull intact by means of the Einthoven string galvanometer in 1913.

Berger’s historical significance lies in his discovery of the electroencephalogram of man. Although he began publishing his many papers on electroencephalography in 1929, he did not receive international recognition until Adrian and Matthews drew attention to his work in 1934.

HansBerger1.png

#15 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2018-10-16 01:12:06

Hi,

#3103. What does the noun decanter mean?

#3104. What does the noun decathlete mean?

#16 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2018-10-16 00:59:52

Hi,

#7117. Name the the most widely recognized national symbol of Canada.

#7118. Where is the 'Jodrell Bank Observatory'?

#17 Re: Jokes » One Liners : Part III » 2018-10-16 00:44:05

My IQ test results just came in and I'm really relieved. Thank God it's negative.
* * *
I'm the type of person who tries to fall back asleep in the morning, just to finish a dream.
* * *
How do you know when Santa's in the room? You can sense his presents.
* * *
I am so poor I can't even pay attention.
* * *
I needed a password eight characters long so I picked Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.
* * *
Two windmills are standing in a field and one asks the other, "What kind of music do you like?"
The other says, "I'm a big metal fan."
* * *
Why do Swedish warships have barcodes on them? So when they dock they can Scandinavian.
* * *
If what you don't know can't hurt you, you're invulnerable.
* * *
I bet you I could stop gambling.
* * *
No one is listening until you make a mistake.
* * *
Sarcasm is just one more service we offer.
* * *
One of the benefits of eating healthier is that you never have to ask questions like, "Who ate my salad?"
* * *
668 – The neighbor of the beast.
* * *

#18 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2018-10-16 00:11:26

227) Distillation

Distillation, process used to separate the substances composing a mixture. It involves a change of state, as of liquid to gas, and subsequent condensation. The process was probably first used in the production of intoxicating beverages. Today, refined methods of distillation are used in many industries, including the alcohol and petroleum industries.

The Basic Distillation Process

A simple distillation apparatus consists essentially of three parts: a flask equipped with a thermometer and with an outlet tube from which the vapor is emitted; a condenser that consists of two tubes of different diameters placed one within the other and so arranged that the smaller (in which the vapor is condensed) is held in a stream of coolant in the larger; and a vessel in which the condensed vapor is collected. The mixture of substances is placed in the flask and heated. Ideally, the substance with the lowest boiling point vaporizes first, the temperature remaining constant until that substance has completely distilled. The vapor is led into the condenser where, on being cooled, it reverts to the liquid (condenses) and runs off into a receiving vessel. The product so obtained is known as the distillate. Those substances having a higher boiling point remain in the flask and constitute the residue.

Since a perfect separation is never effected, the distillate is often redistilled to increase its purity (hence the expression "double distilled" or "triple distilled"). Many alcoholic beverages are distilled, e.g., brandy, gin, whiskey, and various liqueurs. The apparatus used, called the still, is the same in principle as other distillation apparatus.

The Fractional Distillation Process

When the substance with the lowest boiling point has been removed, the temperature can be raised and the distillation process repeated with the substance having the next lowest boiling point. The process of obtaining portions (or fractions) in this way is one type of fractional distillation. A more efficient method of fractional distillation involves placing a vertical tube called a fractionating column between the flask and the condenser. The column is filled with many objects on which the vapor can repeatedly condense and reevaporate as it moves toward the top, effectively distilling the vapor many times. The less volatile substances in the vapor tend to run back down the column after they condense, concentrating themselves near the bottom. The more volatile ones tend to reevaporate and keep moving upward, concentrating themselves near the top. Because of this the column can be tapped at various levels to draw off different fractions. Fractional distillation is commonly used in refining petroleum, some of the fractions thus obtained being gasoline, benzene, kerosene, fuel oils, lubricating oils, and paraffin.

The Destructive Distillation Process

Another form of distillation involves heating out of free contact with air such substances as wood, coal, and oil shale and collecting separately the portions driven off; this is known as destructive distillation. Wood, for example, when treated in this way yields acetic acid, methyl or wood alcohol, charcoal, and a number of hydrocarbons. Coal yields coal gas, coal tar, ammonia, and coke. Ammonia is also obtained by the destructive distillation of oil shale.

fractional_distillation_lab_apparatus-250x250.png

#20 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2018-10-15 15:34:56

Hi,

#4250. In a school, the number of boys and girls are in the ratio 4:7. If the number of boys are increased by 25% and the number of girls are increased by 15%. What will be the new ratio of the boys and girls?

#21 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Mensuration » 2018-10-15 15:17:56

Hi,

M # 452. A right circular cylinder of height 16 centimeters is covered by a rectangular tin foil of size 16 centimeters in length and 22 centimeters breadth. Find the volume of the cylinder. Use

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#22 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2018-10-15 14:48:31

Monox D. I-Fly wrote:
ganesh wrote:

221) Anesthesia

Methods for lessening the sensation of pain during surgery date back to ancient times. Before the discovery of substances that produced general anesthesia, patients needing surgery for illness or injury had to rely on alcohol, opium (a natural narcotic derived from the opium poppy), or fumes from an anesthetic-soaked cloth to deaden the pain of the surgeon's knife. Often a group of men held the patient down during an operation in case the opium or alcohol wore off. Under these conditions, many patients died of shock from the pain of the operation itself.

I am grateful that I am living in the current era. Some days ago, October 6th, I underwent a cataract surgery and probably would have died if that was the method they used.

Miracles owing to Giant strides in the twenty-first century Medical Science, Monox D. I-Fly! Happy to learn the surgery went well! Good wishes!

#23 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2018-10-15 00:45:00

407) Arnold Orville Beckman

(B. Cullom, Illinois, 10 April 1900, d. La Jolla, California, 18 May 2004)

Chemistry, business, civic leader, philanthropy.

Beckman was a man of many parts, as the saying goes. He had really four distinct, albeit interrelated, careers: research scientist and educator; entrepreneur and businessman; civic leader, and philanthropist. His inventions, and the businesses he founded to commercialize them, represented the beginnings of the American chemical instrument industry.

Early Years. Beckman was the son of a blacksmith, George W. Beckman, and his wife Elizabeth. In addition to a younger sister, he had two elder half brothers, born to George Beckman’s deceased first wife. His birthplace, Cullom, Illinois, was then, and still is, a small rural farming community with a population of about 500. Life was fairly austere, a fact for which Beckman later expressed a kind of gratitude; he was forced to improvise. When he was nine, Beckman discovered in the family’s attic a copy of Steele’s Fourteen Weeks in Chemistry, printed in 1861. The book contained instructions for carrying out simple experiments using ordinary household chemicals and other supplies that were commonly available. For his tenth birthday, his father built him a small shed, which became his chemistry laboratory, and Beckman decided at an early age that he would become a chemist. He recalled later that Cullom was lit at night by a few arc lights that burned carbon rods. He and his friends used the stubs of spent rods along with scrap zinc in attempts to form makeshift electric batteries.

Arnold also learned to play the piano in a half-dozen lessons, and before long he was playing as part of a village band. His mother died when he was twelve. After a time his father sold his blacksmith business to become a traveling salesman for a hardware company, moving the family to Bloomington, Illinois, so that his children could have a better education. For the first time, at age fourteen, Beckman lived in a house with indoor plumbing. Arnold won a scholarship to nearby University High School, associated with Illinois State Normal, a state teachers’ college. There he was encouraged to pursue his interest in chemistry. By the time he completed high school he had shown a bent for business; he had started his own company, complete with business cards that read “Bloomington Research Labs,” and had regular work doing analyses for the local gas company. He also became the regular pianist for the local silent movie house, and worked there nearly every night, often improvising to create a mood in keeping with the film being shown.

When Beckman graduated from high school in 1918, the United States was at war, and Beckman joined the U.S. Marine Corps. While temporarily stationed at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, he met Mabel Meinzer, a local Red Cross volunteer, on Thanksgiving Day in 1918. It would be more than seven years before they were married, but even before then she changed his life in important ways. After being discharged from the Marines, he enrolled in chemistry at the University of Illinois, and focused his interests on physical chemistry. He obtained both bachelor’s and master’s degrees in four years, became engaged to Mabel, and set off for graduate school at the newly formed California Institute of Technology. However, his love for Mabel bested his enthusiasm for chemistry, and at the end of his first year he left graduate school for New York. He obtained employment at the Western Electric Laboratory, which became Bell Laboratories during his employment. Beckman became the first technical employee of Walter A. Shewhart, a pioneer of quality control and efficiency studies of manufacturing processes. Beckman also learned about vacuum tubes and electronic circuit design. The lessons he learned at Bell Labs would later serve him well.

A Life in Academic Science. Beckman’s serious interest in research and chemical science resumed in 1926, after he and Mabel had been married for a year. Arthur A. Noyes, chairman of Caltech’s chemistry department, visited Beckman in New York, and induced him to return to Caltech to complete his PhD work. He took up experimental work in photochemistry and carried out his thesis research under the direction of Roscoe Gilkey math. His thesis project involved study of the photodecomposition of gaseous hydrogen azide. At issue was whether the decomposition of an explosively unstable molecule such as hydrogen azide would follow a simple law of photochemistry, in which a single photon of incident light would give rise to the decomposition of a fixed and small number of molecules of hydrogen azide, the “quantum yield.” His thesis research, in which he showed that the quantum yield for photodecomposition of hydrogen azide at low pressure is three, was a tour de force of experimental inventiveness and skill in execution, and it foreshadowed the career path that lay ahead.

One of Beckman’s fellow graduate students, Linus Pauling, also studied with Roscoe at about the same time. Upon completion of their PhD requirements, both Pauling and Beckman were invited to remain on the Caltech chemistry faculty. In that role, while continuing his researches in photochemistry, Beckman taught experimental design and instrumentation as well as a course in scientific glassblowing (there were few scientific glass supply houses in existence at that time). He clearly had an aptitude for experimental innovation. Even as a graduate student, in 1927, he had applied for and received a patent for a signaling device that would announce to the driver of a car when the car had attained a particular speed. In 1934, he invented a new, nonclogging ink for postal meters. Although the ink contained butyric acid, which has a rancid odor, it was sufficiently promising that Beckman began operating a small business in his spare time. In that same year a former classmate from Illinois who was working in the citrus industry approached Beckman for help in measuring the acidity of lemon juice. There was need for a rugged, accurate, and portable device that could be safely carried. The device that Beckman designed drew upon his experience with electronic circuitry at Bell Labs as well as his knowledge as a physical chemist. His device for measuring pH, or acidity, was revolutionary in two respects: It incorporated electronic amplification into a chemical measurement, and it integrated all the components involved in the measurement into a single compact and readily usable instrument. Using the facilities of the small company with which he was involved, National Technical Laboratories, Beckman and his assistants worked to refine their “acidimeter.” A patent for the device was applied for in 1934 and granted in 1936. In 1935, he began selling the instrument through his small company, after a market research trip with Mabel to scientific supply houses in the East. He was advised that the market could absorb perhaps 600 of the acidimeters, an estimate that in time proved extraordinarily short of the mark. Other patents followed, for example, for a factory-sealed glass electrode, an innovation that captured the glass-electrode market. At this time the Beckman family had become a foursome; when Arnold and Mabel found themselves unable to have children of their own, they adopted two children, Patricia Beckman in 1936 and Arnold Stone Beckman in 1937.

Inventor and Entrepreneur. The acidimeter, now referred to as the pH meter, was a huge success, so much so that in 1939 Beckman decided to resign his position at Caltech and assume the full-time presidency of National Technical Laboratories. With the advent of World War II, the demand for scientific instrumentation rose greatly. Beckman saw that there was a great need for new spectroscopic instrumentation. The model D quartz photoelectric spectrometer, introduced in 1941, followed the philosophy of incorporating all of the components—light source, optical system, and detection—into a single package with convenient controls. With the addition of an ultraviolet capability, the instrument’s name was changed to “DU.” It became one of the most celebrated scientific instruments ever produced. It was fast, accurate, precise, and affordable. When production was finally ended in the 1960s, some 21,000 units had been sold. Here and there a few continued in use in the early twenty-first century. The DU was an important tool in many wartime research efforts, including vitamin research. It was used by Erwin Chargaff in 1946 for the first complete analysis of DNA, providing the basis for Chargaff’s rules. In 1942, Beckman agreed to build infrared spectrophotometers, needed for the American synthetic rubber program. The company eventually produced a long line of high performance infrared instruments to complement its array of ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometers.

A key component of the Beckman pH meters was the “Helipot,” a Beckman-patented helical potentiometer that provided more precise and accurate settings than could be attained in other ways. The Helipot is in effect a precise variable resistor, wound into a helical form and with an accurate, reproducible contact along the wire. During the war a militarized version of the Helipot was needed in instruments such as radars. The demand for the Helipots was so great that a separate subsidiary corporation, with Beckman as owner, was established to produce them. Beckman thus became a manufacturer of electronics components.

Civic Contributions. In the postwar years, with his company (renamed Beckman Instruments, Incorporated, in 1950) growing steadily and expanding into new markets, Beckman gave more of his attention to civic matters. Smog had become a serious environmental problem in the Los Angeles basin, home to both Beckman Instruments and the Beckman family. The mayor of Los Angeles asked Beckman for help, and he in turn recruited Arie J. Haagen-Smit, a Caltech professor of chemistry, to work on the problem. In company with Beckman Instruments scientists, Haagen-Smit established that ozone was the offending pollutant, creating noxious peroxy compounds through oxidation of hydrocarbon emissions, a conclusion counter to the prevailing view that the offending substance was sulfur dioxide. California governor Goodwin J. Knight set up a Special Committee on Air Pollution, and Beckman was appointed as chair. Beckman also played a role in creating the not-for-profit Air Pollution Foundation to support research on solutions to the smog problem. At the same time, Beckman Instruments produced a variety of instruments for the measurement and analysis of atmospheric pollutants. Beckman became president of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce in 1956, and he used that position to further argue for measures that would control smog formation. His Chamber of Commerce connections garnered an invitation to accompany Vice President Richard M. Nixon on his trip to Moscow in 1959. He was thus present at the famous “Kitchen Debate” between Nixon and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev.

The Expanding World of Beckman Instruments. While William Shockley had been an undergraduate physics major at Caltech, graduating in 1932, he had occasion to seek Beckman’s help with some experimental work. In 1955, Shockley asked Beckman to help him in forming a new company to manufacture semiconductor materials. In due course the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories was formed in Palo Alto, California, as a subsidiary of Beckman Instruments. All the signs for success of the enterprise were propitious, made even more so by the 1956 Nobel Prize for invention of the transistor shared by Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter H. Brattain. But it was not to be; Shockley proved to be an inept manager and director of people. Despite many signs of trouble, Beckman was reluctant, out of a sense of loyalty, to remove Shockley from his leadership role. When the needed changes did not occur, a group of eight leading researchers, including Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce, left the company to form Fairchild Semiconductor. The new company was soon successful in manufacturing integrated circuits on silicon-based semiconductors. Noyce and Moore later left Fairchild to form Intel. Shockley Semiconductor never achieved any measure of success, and Beckman sold the subsidiary in 1960. It had not been a profitable investment, but Beckman had provided a major impetus for the explosive growth of Silicon Valley.

Beckman Instruments continued to grow in size and also in the range of its products. The company expanded into international markets. The first international subsidiary, Beckman Instruments GmbH, opened in Munich in 1953, as the first postwar U.S. business in Germany. Beckman expanded into new product lines through careful acquisitions. In 1955, he acquired Spinco, a producer of ultracentrifuges. The Beckman Spinco instruments came to dominate the market, proving to be of immense importance in much biological research. There followed a strong development of biological research tools such as amino acid analyzers and sequencers. In addition, the company produced an ever-expanding line of clinical medical instrumentation, such as the oxygen meter and glucose analyzer.

A New Career: Philanthropy. In 1965, at the age of sixty-five, with the company doing very well, Beckman stepped down as president of Beckman Instruments. It was the beginning of a new phase in his life. While he remained chairman of the board of Beckman Instruments, he had more time for other activities. One of those was chairmanship of the Board of Trustees of Caltech, a position he held until 1974. He and Mabel also launched a program of philanthropy, beginning with several major gifts to Caltech. He also became involved in politics; he was the major organizer of the Lincoln Club, which brought together Orange County, California, businesspeople to support conservative political causes. The activities of this group were key to Richard Nixon’s win of California in the 1968 presidential campaign, which in turn was essential to his winning the election.

In 1981, Beckman agreed to sell his company to SmithKline Corporation, a Philadelphia-based pharmaceutical company. He and Mabel made a decision to disburse most of the very considerable wealth they had accumulated, largely through science-oriented philanthropy. They had created the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation in 1977 as a vehicle for this endeavor. There followed a series of major gifts, beginning with $10 million to City of Hope National Medical Center to establish the Beckman Research Institute there. Following this, the Beckman Laser Institute was built in Irvine, California; it later became a part of the University of California, Irvine. In 1985, the Beckmans awarded the University of Illinois $40 million, contingent upon a $10 million match from the state, for construction of a large, broadly based, multidisciplinary research institute. The Arnold and Mabel Beckman Institute for Advanced Research and Technology held its inauguration in 1989 under the directorship of Theodore L. Brown. By the early 2000s it had become a world-renowned center for interdisciplinary research.

The Beckmans gave Stanford University $12.5 million toward the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center for Molecular and Genetic Medicine. The Nobel Laureate, Paul Berg, was a leading figure in formulating the Stanford proposal and was the center’s founding director. At Caltech, the Beckmans provided a total of $15 million toward a Laboratory of Chemical Synthesis, followed in 1986 by a $50 million gift to design, construct, and partially endow an interdisciplinary research center, named the Beckman Institute. The eminent chemist Harry B. Gray played a lead role in formulating the plan for the Caltech Beckman Institute and became its founding director. The Beckmans also gave $20 million to the National Academies of Science and Engineering to establish the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the Academies in Irvine, California. Intended as a West Coast base for the Academies, it also serves as a home for the Beckman Foundation. Beyond these major gifts, the Beckman made many additional gifts to a wide range of institutions.

Mabel Beckman died on 1 June 1989; her death was a major blow for Arnold. The Beckmans had always worked as a team in their philanthropy. Although they had given away nearly $200 million during the 1980s, the foundation’s assets were still very substantial. Beckman recast the foundation as a foundation in perpetuity and turned over its direction to a board. As of 2007 the Beckman Foundation supported important programs, such as the Beckman Young Investigator program, designed to assist newly appointed tenure-track faculty in chemistry and the life sciences get their research off to a good start, and the Beckman Scholars Program, which supported undergraduate research in chemistry and the life sciences. In addition, the foundation has funded an innovative $14 million program, Beckman@Science, which provides hands-on training and supplies for teaching science in elementary schools of Orange County, California.

Arnold Beckman lived a long, vigorous, and very productive life. At ninety-nine he still played piano quite well. The Nobel Laureate James D. Watson had this to say of him: “Arnold Beckman’s contributions to science and to society came in part, from his rare talent for creating these new instruments and his decision to make them available to industry and science alike. It has been amplified by his unique philanthropic support of the same forward-looking research that his innovation furthered”. The many recognitions Beckman received include the National Medal of Science (1989), the National Medal of Technology (1988), and the Lifetime Achievement Award of the National Inventor’s Hall of Fame.

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#24 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2018-10-15 00:28:14

226) Caribbean

The Caribbean islands lie on the northern and eastern sides of the Caribbean Sea, stretching in an elongated S shape from the Bahamas and Cuba in the north and west to Trinidad in the south. The islands are divided into two main groups: the large islands of the Greater Antilles and the smaller islands of the Lesser Antilles. Strong historical connections with the islands mean that the mainland territories of Guyana and Belize are frequently categorized as part of the Caribbean.

The First Inhabitants

The Caribbean islands were probably first settled from the South American mainland. When Europeans arrived in the region there were three main groups of people living there. The Ciboney people were found in parts of Hispaniola and Cuba. The Arawak people occupied most of the Greater Antilles, while the Caribs lived throughout the Lesser Antilles. The Caribs were the latest to arrive in the region, migrating northward. As a result of this movement, the peoples of the Caribbean were experiencing change before the arrival of Europeans. However, the arrival of people from the Old World set in motion transformations on a previously unimaginable scale.

The Arrival Of Europeans

In 1492 the three ships of Christopher Columbus's Spanish expedition made landfall in the Bahamas, before heading south to Cuba and Hispaniola. Columbus famously thought that he had reached the East Indies and clung to this belief until his death in 1506. On his second voyage to the New World, Columbus brought seventeen ships, over a thousand soldiers, and European plants, horses, and livestock. This expedition explored and named many of the Caribbean islands, landing on Dominica, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Antigua, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica.

The first Spanish settlements were in the Greater Antilles, the largest being on Hispaniola. The principal aim of Spanish colonization was to find and extract silver and gold, and Spanish settlers established mines as well as breeding horses and livestock. By the early sixteenth century, large deposits of gold and silver had been discovered in the mainland areas of Mexico and Peru. Thereafter, Spanish Caribbean settlements operated as staging posts and recruitment areas for expeditions to these regions.

The Spanish sought to convert the original inhabitants of the region to Christianity, but these efforts met with little success, and relations between the two groups were generally violent and exploitative. The Spaniards conquered the islands by force and gave no quarter when faced with resistance. They coerced native people into working in the mines, and disturbed local patterns of food production, causing many to starve. Furthermore, natives of the islands lacked immunities to European diseases. It is unclear exactly what proportion of them died as a result of illnesses imported from the Old World, but the arrival of Europeans in the region was certainly a social and demographic disaster, and native people were either destroyed or integrated into the Spanish society. The vast majority were wiped out within a few generations, certainly on the larger islands.

The End Of Spanish Hegemony

Prior to the end of the sixteenth century, Spain was the only colonial power in the Caribbean. However, Spain's power and influence was declining in Europe and it was increasingly difficult to exclude the English, Dutch, and French from the Caribbean. Initially, the only challenge to Spanish hegemony came from the increasingly common raids on ships and ports by pirates, such as John Hawkins and Francis Drake, who came in search of Spanish gold and silver. Buccaneers (raiders operating from bases in the Caribbean) continued to harass and plunder ships and ports in the region until the eighteenth century.

By the seventeenth century the period of Spanish hegemony was over, and the English, French, and Dutch began to trade and form colonies in the Caribbean. European powers fought to expand their empires and gain dominance of the sea, and because the financial value of Caribbean products and trade was high, competition between the main powers was particularly fierce in the region. The Caribbean became a focal point in the increasingly globalized conflicts between Britain and France during the eighteenth century. At times of war, sea battles were fought and islands were captured and recaptured. Between 1762 and 1814 control of the island of St. Lucia alternated between Britain and France seven times.

Sugar And Slavery

The expansion of sugar production and slavery helped to ensure that Caribbean colonies were economically and strategically vital to European governments. During the seventeenth century, having experimented with other crops, notably tobacco, northern European settlers began planting sugar, which grew well in tropical conditions and fetched a high price in Europe. Until the mid-eighteenth century, the wealthiest English plantation colony was Barbados, which was then superseded by the larger island of Jamaica, conquered from the Spanish in 1655. The most lucrative sugar colony in the Caribbean was French Saint-Domingue, in the western third of Hispaniola.

Effective sugar production required large holdings of land. This resulted in the creation of plantations that often covered thousands of acres. The cultivation and processing of this crop was also extremely labor-intensive, and, having experimented with indigenous slaves and indentured European labor, Caribbean planters turned to African slaves to meet their labor needs. Slaves imported from the west coast of Africa proved hardier than the indigenous islanders and a more reliable source of labor than European workers. Existing slaving networks in Africa ensured that there was a steady supply of slaves to meet European demand, and because they were treated as items of personal property, enslaved people could be easily bought and sold. The transatlantic slave trade therefore solved the planters' labor problems and permanently altered all aspects of life in the Caribbean colonies. Over five million Africans arrived in the Caribbean, having endured the horrors of the Middle Passage across the Atlantic.

Sugar plantations and the institution of slavery expanded together and had reached the height of their growth and profitability by the end of the eighteenth century. The precise demographic structure of slave societies differed from place to place, but everywhere in the Caribbean they were characterized by large black majorities, as slaves came to heavily outnumber the white inhabitants of the islands. For example, in 1800 there were about twenty slaves to every white person on the island of Jamaica. Across the region, a class of free colored people also emerged, occupying a social and legal position in between the islands' enslaved majorities and privileged white minorities.

Several factors discouraged whites from permanently settling in the region. A plethora of highly contagious diseases and the threat of slave uprisings rendered life in the Caribbean uncomfortable and dangerous. Many larger proprietors lived in Europe as absentees, and those whites who remained in the region did not consider the islands to be a permanent home and maintained a close affinity with the colonial metropole. Caribbean slaveholders also relied upon European military support to control their slaves. Such ties of dependency helped to ensure that Caribbean colonists did not follow their mainland Spanish and North American counterparts in demanding independence from European colonial systems.

In all colonies, slaves were worked hard and faced harsh treatment. In spite of this, enslaved people across the region created viable cultures that allowed them to resist the effects of slavery. Afro-Caribbean cultures emerged that reconfigured African beliefs, practices, and traditions in a New World setting. These cultures often merged with European traditions, especially because many slaves were converted to Christianity and most were forced to learn the language of their masters.

Resistance to slavery was a constant feature of life in the colonies. This ranged from day-to-day forms of resistance, such as working slowly, all the way to large-scale rebellions. Many slaves attempted to run away, and on larger islands, such as Jamaica and Hispaniola, some formed semiautonomous "Maroon" communities. While slave rebellions were common in the Caribbean, most ended in failure. In Saint-Domingue, however, unrest caused by the French Revolution resulted in a successful slave uprising—led by Toussaint L'Ouverture, a former slave—which culminated in the creation of the independent state of Haiti in 1804.

The Ending Of Caribbean Slavery

In 1807 the British abolished the transatlantic slave trade after a popular campaign led mainly by wealthy evangelicals. This came at a time when slave-produced sugar was still profitable. In the British Caribbean, an economic slump followed the ending of the trade, partly as a result of the demographic impact of abolition. In the British Caribbean, slaves eventually gained emancipation in 1838 as the result of continued pressure in Britain and ongoing slave resistance in the Caribbean. In the remaining French territories of Martinique and Guadeloupe, slavery ended in 1848, while slaves in the Dutch Caribbean were freed in 1863.

The abolition of slavery did not end the tensions that characterized societies long based on racialized social and economic divisions. Emancipated slaves sought independence from the sugar estates. Former slaveholders used a range of tactics to try to retain the freed people's labor, limit their access to land, and prevent their involvement in political life, causing tensions that resulted in protests and riots in British Caribbean territories throughout the postemancipation period. Some planters, especially those in Trinidad and Guyana, responded to their labor problems by importing South and East Asian indentured workers. Many of these laborers settled permanently, contributing to the social and cultural composition of those colonies.

Even as the sugar industry in the British and French Caribbean declined during the nineteenth century, Cuban production rose rapidly. Abundant fertile land, the removal of Spanish trade restrictions, and technological advances meant that the island experienced an economic boom that lasted until the late nineteenth century. Black slaves were used on Cuban plantations along with free workers from Europe, Asia, and Mexico, making the social structure and labor relations in the colony distinct from those in the British and French islands. Slavery survived in Cuba until the 1880s, when the institution was gradually phased out before a complete abolition in 1886.

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