#1038. Name the medical term / phrase- In human anatomy, it is one of the muscles of mastication. In the animal kingdom, it is particularly powerful in herbivores to facilitate chewing of plant matter. The most obvious muscle of mastication is this, since it is the most superficial and one of the strongest. It is a thick, somewhat quadrilateral muscle, consisting of two heads, superficial and deep. The fibers of the two heads are continuous at their insertion.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is often referred to as the "Red Planet" because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.
The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan.
On 28 September 2015, NASA announced the presence of briny flowing salt water on the Martian surface.
Aphelion - 1.6660 AU - 249.2 million km
Perihelion - 1.3814 AU - 206.7 million km
Semi-major axis - 1.523679 AU - 227,939,100 km
Eccentricity - 0.0935±0.0001
Orbital period - 1.8808 Julian years - 686.971 d
Synodic period - 779.96 days - 2.135 Julian years
Average orbital speed - 24.077 km/s
Mean anomaly - 19.3564°
Inclination - 1.850° to ecliptic - 5.65° to Sun's equator - 1.67° to invariable plane
Longitude of ascending node - 49.562°
Argument of perihelion - 286.537°
Satellites - 2
Mean radius - 3389.5±0.2 km
Equatorial radius - 3396.2±0.1 km - 0.533 Earths
Polar radius - 3,376.2±0.1 km - 0.531 Earths
Flattening - 0.00589±0.00015
Surface area - 144,798,500 square kilometers - 0.284 Earths
Surface pressure - 0.636 (0.4–0.87) kPa
Composition by volume
95.97% carbon dioxide
0.0557% carbon monoxide
210 ppm water vapor
100 ppm nitric oxide
15 ppm molecular hydrogen
2.5 ppm neon
850 ppb HDO
300 ppb krypton
130 ppb formaldehyde
80 ppb xenon
18 ppb hydrogen peroxide
10 ppb methane
18. Neil Armstrong
Astronaut, military pilot, and educator, Neil Armstrong made history on July 20, 1969, by becoming the first man to walk on the moon.
Neil Armstrong joined the organization that would become NASA in 1962 and was command pilot for his first mission, Gemini VIII, in 1966. He was spacecraft commander for Apollo 11 and the first man to walk on the moon.
Neil Armstrong was born in Wapakoneta, Ohio, on August 5, 1930. After serving in the Korean War and then finishing college, he joined the organization that would become NASA. He joined the astronaut program in 1962 and was command pilot for his first mission, Gemini VIII, in 1966. He was spacecraft commander for Apollo 11, the first manned lunar mission, and became the first man to walk on the moon. He died in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 2012.
Astronaut Neil Armstrong developed a fascination with flight at an early age and earned his student pilot's license when he was 16. In 1947, Armstrong began his studies in aeronautical engineering at Purdue University on a U.S. Navy scholarship.
His studies, however, were interrupted in 1949 when he was called to serve in the Korean War. A U.S. Navy pilot, Armstrong flew 78 combat missions during this military conflict. He left the service in 1952, and returned to college. A few years later, Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), which later became the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For this government agency he worked in a number of different capacities, including serving as a test pilot and an engineer. He tested many high-speed aircraft, including the X-15, which could reach a top speed of 4,000 miles per hour.
In his personal life, Armstrong started to settle down. He married Janet Shearon on January 28, 1956. The couple soon added to their family. Son Eric arrived in 1957, followed daughter Karen in 1959. Sadly, Karen died of complications related to an inoperable brain tumor in January 1962. The following year, the Armstrongs welcomed their third child, son Mark.
That same year, Armstrong joined the astronaut program. He and his family moved to Houston, Texas, and Armstrong served as the command pilot for his first mission, Gemini VIII. He and fellow astronaut David Scott were launched into the earth's orbit on March 16, 1966. While in orbit, they were able to briefly dock their space capsule with the Gemini Agena target vehicle. This was the first time two vehicles had successfully docked in space. During this maneuver, however, they experienced some problems and had to cut their mission short. They landed in the Pacific Ocean nearly 11 hours after the mission's start, and were later rescued by the U.S.S. Mason.
Armstrong faced an even bigger challenge in 1969. Along with Michael Collins and Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin, he was part of NASA's first manned mission to the moon. The trio were launched into space on July 16, 1969. Serving as the mission's commander, Armstrong piloted the Lunar Module to the moon's surface on July 20, 1969, with Buzz Aldrin aboard. Collins remained on the Command Module.
At 10:56 PM, Armstrong exited the Lunar Module. He said, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind," as he made his famous first step on the moon. For about two and a half hours, Armstrong and Aldrin collected samples and conducted experiments. They also took photographs, including their own footprints.
Returning on July 24, 1969, the Apollo 11 craft came down in the Pacific Ocean west of Hawaii. The crew and the craft were picked up by the U.S.S. Hornet, and the three astronauts were put into quarantine for three weeks.
Before long, the three Apollo 11 astronauts were given a warm welcome home. Crowds lined the streets of New York City to cheer on the famous heroes who were honored in a ticker-tape parade. Armstrong received numerous awards for his efforts, including the Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.
Armstrong remained with NASA, serving as deputy associate administrator for aeronautics until 1971. After leaving NASA, he joined the faculty of the University of Cincinnati as a professor of aerospace engineering. Armstrong remained at the university for eight years. Staying active in his field, he served as the chairman of Computing Technologies for Aviation, Inc., from 1982 to 1992.
Helping out at a difficult time, Armstrong served as vice chairman of the Presidential Commission on the space shuttle Challenger accident in 1986. The commission investigated the explosion of the Challenger on January 28, 1986, which took the lives of its crew, including school teacher Christa McAuliffe.
Death & Legacy
Despite being one of the most famous astronauts in history, Armstrong largely shied away from the public eye. He gave a rare interview to the news program 60 Minutes in 2005. He described the moon to interviewer Ed Bradley, saying "It's a brilliant surface in that sunlight. The horizon seems quite close to you because the curvature is so much more pronounced than here on earth. It's an interesting place to be. I recommend it." That same year, his authorized biography came out. First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong was written by James R. Hansen, who conducted interviews with Armstrong, his family, and his friends and associates.
Even in his final years, Armstrong remained committed to space exploration. The press-shy astronaut returned to the spotlight in 2010 to express his concerns over changes made to the U.S. space program. He testified in Congress against President Barack Obama's decision to cancel the Constellation program, which included another mission to the moon. Obama also sought to encourage private companies to get involved in the space travel business and to move forward with more unmanned space missions.
Taking this new decision, Armstrong said, would cost the United States its leadership position in space exploration. "America is respected for its contributions it has made in learning to sail on this new ocean. If the leadership we have acquired through our investment is simply allowed to fade away, other nations will surely step in where we have faltered. I do not believe that would be in our best interests," he told Congress, according to a report on NewsHour.
Armstrong underwent a heart bypass operation in August 2012. A few weeks later, on August 25, 2012, at the age of 82, Neil Armstrong died of complications resulting from cardiovascular procedures in Cincinnati, Ohio. He was survived by his second wife, Carol, in Indian Hill, Ohio, and his two sons from his first marriage. He and his first wife divorced in 1994.
Shortly after his death, his family released a statement: "For those who may ask what they can do to honor Neil, we have a simple request. Honor his example of service, accomplishment and modesty, and the next time you walk outside on a clear night and see the moon smiling down at you, think of Neil Armstrong and give him a wink."
News of Armstrong's death quickly spread around the world. President Obama was among those offering their condolences to his family and sharing their remembrances of the late space pioneer. "Neil was among the greatest of American heroes—not just of his time, but of all time," Obama said, according to the Los Angeles Times. His Apollo 11 colleague Buzz Aldrin said that "I know I am joined by millions of others in mourning the passing of a true American hero and the best pilot I ever knew. My friend Neil took the small step but giant leap that changed the world and will forever be remembered as a landmark moment in human history," according to CBS News.
The solution SP #134 is correct! Good work!
SP # 135.Suppose five people are ill during the first week of an epidemic, and each sick person spreads the contagious disease to four other people by the end of the second week and so on. By the end of fifteenth week, how many people will be affected by the epidemic?
The Answers, #5685 (Robert Hooke) and #5686 (Autoclave), are correct! Remarkable!
#5687. Name the chemical element with atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between those of its periodic table column-adjacent chalcogen elements sulfur and tellurium. It rarely occurs in its elemental state in nature, or as pure ore compounds. It was discovered in 1817 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who noted the similarity of the new element to the previously known tellurium (named for the Earth). It is found in metal sulfide ores, where it partially replaces the sulfur. Commercially, it is produced as a byproduct in the refining of these ores, most often during production.
#5688. Name the chemical element with atomic number 38. An alkaline earth metal, it is a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. The metal turns yellow when it is exposed to air. It has physical and chemical properties similar to those of its two neighbors calcium and barium. It occurs naturally in the minerals celestine, putnisite and strontianite.
The Answer #5683 (Attenuation) is correct! Good work!
#5685. Name the scientist - A true polymath, the topics he covered during his career include comets, the motion of light, the rotation of Jupiter, gravity, human memory and the properties of air. In all of his studies and demonstrations, he adhered to the scientific method of experimentation and observation. Hooke also utilized the most up-to-date instruments in his many projects.
His most important publication was Micrographia, a 1665 volume documenting experiments he had made with a microscope. In this groundbreaking study, he coined the term "cell" while discussing the structure of cork. He also described flies, feathers and snowflakes, and correctly identified fossils as remnants of once-living things.
The 1678 publication of his Lectures of Spring shared his theory of elasticity; in what came to be known as low named after him, he stated that the force required to extend or compress a spring is proportional to the distance of that extension or compression. In an ongoing, related project, his worked for many years on the invention of a spring-regulated watch.
#5686. Name the pressure chamber used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C (249°F) for around 15-20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents. It was invented by Charles Chamberland in 1879, although a precursor known as the steam digester was created by Denis Papin in 1679.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has no natural satellite. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky, reaching an apparent magnitude of -4.6, bright enough to cast shadows. Because Venus is an inferior planet from Earth, it never appears to venture far from the Sun: its elongation reaches a maximum of 47.8°.
Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun and bulk composition. It is radically different from Earth in other respects. It has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth's. With a mean surface temperature of 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F), Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, even though Mercury is closer to the Sun. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. It may have had oceans in the past, but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect. The water has most probably photodissociated, and, because of the lack of a planetary magnetic field, the free hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind. Venus's surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and periodically refreshed by volcanism.
Orbital characteristics -
Aphelion - 0.728213 AU - 108939000 km
Perihelion - 0.718440 AU - 107477000 km
Semi-major axis - 0.723332 AU - 108208000 km
Eccentricity - 0.006772
Orbital period - 224.701 d - 0.615198 yr
1.92 Venus solar day
Synodic period - 583.92 days
Average orbital speed - 35.02 km/s
Mean anomaly - 50.115°
Inclination - 3.39458° to ecliptic - 3.86° to Sun's equator
2.19° to invariable plane
Longitude of ascending node - 76.680°
Argument of perihelion - 54.884°
Satellites - None
Mean radius - 6051.8±1.0 km - 0.9499 Earths
Surface area -
17. The Shannon number, named after Claude Shannon, is an estimated lower bound on the game-tree complexity of chess of, based on about initial moves for White and Black and a typical game lasting about 40 pairs of moves. Shannon calculated it as an aside in his 1950 paper "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess". (This influential paper introduced the field of computer chess.)
Shannon also estimated the number of possible positions, "of the general order of, or roughly ". This includes some illegal positions (e.g., pawns on the first rank, both kings in check) and excludes legal positions following captures and promotions. Taking these into account, Victor Allis calculated an upper bound of for the number of positions, and estimated the true number to be about . Recent results improve that estimate, by proving an upper bound of only , which is less than and showing an upper bound in the absence of promotions. Mathematician James Grime estimates that there are possible "sensible" games.
Allis also estimated the game-tree complexity to be at least, "based on an average branching factor of 35 and an average game length of 80". As a comparison, the number of atoms in the observable universe, to which it is often compared, is estimated to be between and .
#1036. Name the medical term - A medical condition where air enters the pericardial cavity. This condition has been recognized in preterm neonates, in which it is associated with severe lung pathology, after vigorous resuscitation, or in the presence of assisted ventilation. This is a serious complication, which if untreated may lead to cardiac tamponade and death. It can be congenital, or introduced by a wound.
The Answer #5682 is correct! Excellent!
#5683. Name the general term (Physics) that refers to any reduction in the strength of a signal. It occurs with any type of signal, whether digital or analog. Sometimes called loss, it is a natural consequence of signal transmission over long distances. In electrical engineering and telecommunications, it affects the propagation of waves and signals in electrical circuits, in optical fibers, and in air (radio waves).
#5684. Name the physical phenomenon in which the filling of an inner-shell vacancy of an atom is accompanied by the emission of an electron from the same atom. When a core electron is removed, leaving a vacancy, an electron from a higher energy level may fall into the vacancy, resulting in a release of energy. Although most of the time this energy is released in the form of an emitted photon, the energy can also be transferred to another electron, which is ejected from the atom.
#1035. Name the drug - It is used to control absence (petit mal) seizures in the treatment of epilepsy. This medicine is an anticonvulsant that works in the brain tissue to stop seizures. This medicine is available only with your doctor's prescription.
This product is available in the following dosage forms:
Capsule, Liquid Filled
US Brand Name - Zarontin.