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#1 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Today 00:41:42


#4112. If AB = BC, where A(2,-7), C(4,3) and the sum of the abcissa and ordinate of the point B is 5. Find the coordinates of the point B.

#2 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Today 00:33:51



#6578. A cylindrical vessel of radius 4 centimeters contains water. A solid sphere is dipped into the water until it is completely immersed. Find the rise in water level.

#3 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Mensuration » Today 00:25:14


M # 319. A wire can be bent in the form of a circle of radius 56 centimeters. If it is bent in the form of a square, find its area.


#4 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Series and Progressions » Today 00:18:47


SP#386. If the sum of three consecutive terms of a Geometric Progression is 38 and their product is 1728, find these three consecutive terms.

#5 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Today 00:11:17

139) Dead Sea

Dead Sea, Arabic Al-Baḥr Al-Mayyit (“Sea of Death”), Hebrew Yam HaMelaẖ (“Salt Sea”), also called Salt Sea, landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan in southwestern Asia. Its eastern shore belongs to Jordan, and the southern half of its western shore belongs to Israel. The northern half of the western shore lies within the Palestinian West Bank and has been under Israeli occupation since the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. The Jordan River, from which the Dead Sea receives nearly all its water, flows from the north into the lake.

The Dead Sea has the lowest elevation and is the lowest body of water on the surface of Earth. For several decades in the mid-20th century the standard value given for the surface level of the lake was some 1,300 feet (400 metres) below sea level. Beginning in the 1960s, however, Israel and Jordan began diverting much of the Jordan River’s flow and increased the use of the lake’s water itself for commercial purposes. The result of those activities was a precipitous drop in the Dead Sea’s water level. By the mid-2010s measurement of the lake level was more than 100 feet (some 30 metres) below the mid-20th-century figure—i.e., about 1,410 feet (430 metres) below sea level—but the lake continued to drop by about 3 feet (1 metre) annually.

Physical Features

Physiography and geology

The Dead Sea is situated between the hills of Judaea to the west and the Transjordanian plateaus to the east. Before the water level began dropping, the lake was some 50 miles (80 km) long, attained a maximum width of 11 miles (18 km), and had a surface area of about 394 square miles (1,020 square km). The peninsula of Al-Lisān (Arabic: “The Tongue”) divided the lake on its eastern side into two unequal basins: the northern basin encompassed about three-fourths of the lake’s total surface area and reached a depth of 1,300 feet (400 metres), and the southern basin was smaller and considerably shallower, less than 10 feet (3 metres) deep on average. During biblical times and until the 8th century CE, only the area around the northern basin was inhabited, and the lake was slightly lower than its present-day level. It rose to its highest level, 1,275 feet (389 metres) below sea level, in 1896 but receded again after 1935, stabilizing at about 1,300 feet (400 metres) below sea level for several decades.

The drop in the lake level in the late 20th and early 21st centuries changed the physical appearance of the Dead Sea. Most noticeably, the peninsula of Al-Lisān gradually extended eastward, until the lake’s northern and southern basins became separated by a strip of dry land. In addition, the southern basin was eventually subdivided into dozens of large evaporation pools (for the extraction of salt), so by the 21st century it had essentially ceased to be a natural body of water. The northern basin—effectively now the actual Dead Sea—largely retained its overall dimensions despite its great loss of water, mainly because its shoreline plunged downward so steeply from the surrounding landscape.

The Dead Sea region occupies part of a graben (a downfaulted block of Earth’s crust) between transform faults along a tectonic plate boundary that runs northward from the Red Sea–Gulf of Suez spreading centre to a convergent plate boundary in the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. The eastern fault, along the edge of the Moab Plateau, is more readily visible from the lake than is the western fault, which marks the gentler Judaean upfold.

In the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods (about 201 million to 66 million years ago), before the creation of the graben, an extended Mediterranean Sea covered Syria and Palestine. During the Miocene Epoch (23 million to 5.3 million years ago), as the Arabian Plate collided with the Eurasian Plate to the north, upheaval of the seabed produced the upfolded structures of the Transjordanian highlands and the central range of Palestine, causing the fractures that allowed the Dead Sea graben to drop. At that time the Dead Sea was probably about the size that it is today. During the Pleistocene Epoch (2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago), it rose to an elevation of about 700 feet (200 metres) above its modern level, forming a vast inland sea that stretched some 200 miles (320 km) from the H̱ula Valley area in the north to 40 miles (64 km) beyond its present southern limits. The Dead Sea did not spill over into the Gulf of Aqaba because it was blocked by a 100-foot (30-metre) rise in the highest part of Wadi Al-ʿArabah, a seasonal watercourse that flows in a valley to the east of the central Negev highlands.

Beginning about 2.5 million years ago, heavy streamflow into the lake deposited thick sediments of shale, clay, sandstone, rock salt, and gypsum. Later, strata of clay, marl, soft chalk, and gypsum were dropped onto layers of sand and gravel. Because the water in the lake evaporated faster than it was replenished by precipitation during the past 10,000 years, the lake gradually shrank to its present form. In so doing, it exposed deposits that now cover the Dead Sea valley to thicknesses of between about 1 and 4 miles (1.6 and 6.4 km).

The Al-Lisān region and Mount Sedom (historically Mount Sodom) resulted from movements of Earth’s crust. Mount Sedom’s steep cliffs rise up from the southwestern shore. Al-Lisān is formed of strata of clay, marl, soft chalk, and gypsum interbedded with sand and gravel. Both Al-Lisān and beds made of similar material on the western side of the Dead Sea valley dip to the east. It is assumed that the uplifting of Mount Sedom and Al-Lisān formed a southern escarpment for the Dead Sea. Later the sea broke through the western half of that escarpment to flood what is now the shallow southern remnant of the Dead Sea.

Another consequence resulting from the Dead Sea’s lower water level has been the appearance of sinkholes, especially in the southwestern part of the region. As the water in the lake dropped, it became possible for groundwater to rise up and dissolve large subterranean caverns in the overlying salt layer until the surface finally collapses. Several hundred sinkholes have formed, some of them in areas popular with tourists.

Climate and hydrology

The Dead Sea lies in a desert. Rainfall is scanty and irregular. Al-Lisān averages about 2.5 inches (65 mm) of rain a year, the industrial site of Sedom (near historical Sodom) only about 2 inches (50 mm). Because of the lake’s extremely low elevation and sheltered location, winter temperatures are mild, averaging 63 °F (17 °C) in January at the southern end at Sedom and 58 °F (14 °C) at the northern end; freezing temperatures do not occur. Summer is oppressively hot, averaging 93 °F (34 °C) in August at Sedom, with a recorded maximum of 124 °F (51 °C). Evaporation of the lake’s waters—estimated at about 55 inches (1,400 mm) per year—often creates a thick mist above the lake. On the rivers the atmospheric humidity varies from 45 percent in May to 62 percent in October. Lake and land breezes, which are relatively common, blow off the lake in all directions in the daytime and then reverse direction to blow toward the centre of the lake at night.

The inflow from the Jordan River, whose high waters occur in winter and spring, once averaged some 45.5 billion cubic feet (1.3 billion cubic metres) per year. However, the subsequent diversions of the Jordan’s waters reduced the river’s flow to a small fraction of the previous amount and became the principal cause for the drop in the Dead Sea’s water level. Four modest streams descend to the lake from Jordan to the east through deep gorges: the wadis (intermittent streams) Al-ʿUẓaymī, Zarqāʾ Māʿīn, Al-Mawjib, and Al-Ḥasā. Down numerous other wadis, streams flow spasmodically and briefly from the neighbouring heights as well as from the depression of Wadi Al-ʿArabah. Thermal sulfur springs also feed the rivers. Evaporation in summer and the inflow of water, especially in winter and spring, once caused noticeable seasonal variations of 12 to 24 inches (30 to 60 cm) in the level of the lake, but those fluctuations have been overshadowed by the more-dramatic annual drops in the Dead Sea’s surface level.


The waters of the Dead Sea are extremely saline, and, generally, the concentration of salt increases toward the lake’s bottom. That phenomenon can create two different masses of water in the lake for extended periods of time. Such a situation existed for some three centuries, lasting until the late 1970s. Down to a depth of about 130 feet (40 metres), the temperature varied from 66 to 98 °F (19 to 37 °C), the salinity was slightly less than 300 parts per thousand, and the water was especially rich in sulfates and bicarbonates. Beneath a zone of transition located at depths between 130 and 330 feet (40 and 100 metres), the water had a uniform temperature of about 72 °F (22 °C) and a higher degree of salinity (approximately 332 parts per thousand); it contained hydrogen sulfide and strong concentrations of magnesium, potassium, chlorine, and bromine. The deep water was saturated with sodium chloride, which precipitated to the bottom. The deep water thus became fossilized (i.e., because it was highly salty and dense, it remained permanently on the bottom).

The dramatic reduction in inflow from the Jordan River that began in the 1960s gradually increased the salinity of the upper-layer waters of the Dead Sea. By the late 1970s that water mass had become more saline (and denser) than the lower layers, but, because it remained warmer than the layers beneath it, it did not sink. By the winter of 1978–79, however, the upper-level layer had become cool and saturated enough to sink, setting off an event known as an overturn (a mixing of the water layers). Since then the trend has been toward restoring the formerly stratified water layers, but with more instances of overturning.

The saline water has a high density that keeps bathers buoyant. The fresh water of the Jordan stays on the surface, and in the spring its muddy colour can be traced as it spreads southward from the point where the river empties into the Dead Sea. The lake’s extreme salinity excludes all forms of life except bacteria. Fish carried in by the Jordan or by smaller streams when in flood die quickly. Apart from the vegetation along the rivers, plant life along the shores is discontinuous and consists mainly of halophytes (plants that grow in salty or alkaline soil).

Human Imprint

The name Dead Sea can be traced at least to the Hellenistic Age (323 to 30 BCE). The Dead Sea figures in biblical accounts dating to the time of Abraham (first of the Hebrew patriarchs) and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (the two cities along the lake, according to the Hebrew Bible, that were destroyed by fire from heaven because of their wickedness). The desolate wilderness beside the lake offered refuge to David (king of ancient Israel) and later to Herod I (the Great; king of Judaea), who at the time of the siege of Jerusalem by the Parthians in 40 BCE barricaded himself in a fortress at Masada, Israel, just west of Al-Lisān. Masada was the scene of a two-year siege that culminated in the mass suicide of its Jewish Zealot defenders and the occupation of the fortress by the Romans in 73 CE. The Jewish sect that left the biblical manuscripts known as the Dead Sea Scrolls took shelter in caves at Qumrān, just northwest of the lake.

The Dead Sea constitutes an enormous salt reserve. Rock salt deposits also occur in Mount Sedom along the southwestern shore. The salt has been exploited on a small scale since antiquity. In 1929 a potash factory was opened near the mouth of the Jordan. Subsidiary installations were later built in the south at Sedom, but the original factory was destroyed during the 1948–49 Arab-Israeli war. A factory producing potash, magnesium, and calcium chloride was opened in Sedom in 1955. Another plant produces bromine and other chemical products. There are also chemical-processing facilities on the Jordanian side of the southern basin. Water for the extensive array of evaporation pools in the south, from which those minerals are extracted, is supplied by artificial canals from the northern basin.

Because of its location on the contested Jordanian-Israeli frontier, navigation on the Dead Sea is negligible. Its shores are nearly deserted, and permanent establishments are rare. Exceptions are the factory at Sedom, a few hotels and spas in the north, and, in the west, a kibbutz (an Israeli agricultural community) in the region of the ʿEn Gedi oasis. Small cultivated plots are also occasionally found on the lakeshore.

Concern mounted quickly over the continued drop in the Dead Sea’s water level, prompting studies and calls for greater conservation of the Jordan River’s water resources. In addition to proposals for reducing the amount of river water diverted by Israel and Jordan, those two countries discussed proposals for canals that would bring additional water to the Dead Sea. One such project, which received approval from both sides in 2015, would involve constructing a canal northward from the Red Sea. The plan, which would include desalinization and hydroelectric plants along the course of the canal, would deliver large quantities of brine (a by-product of the desalinization process) to the lake. However, the project met with skepticism and opposition from environmentalists and others who questioned the potentially harmful effects of mixing water from the two sources.


#6 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Yesterday 15:06:41


#1268. What is 'Endosteum'?

#7 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Yesterday 14:56:04


#2967. What does the noun countenance mean?

#2968. What does the verb (used with object) counteract mean?

#8 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Yesterday 14:37:32


#6979. Which country is called the “Land of Fertile Fields”?

#6980. Where is 'Shwedagon Pagoda', officially named Shwedagon Zedi Daw and also known as the Great Dagon Pagoda and the Golden Pagoda?

#9 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Yesterday 00:19:55

340) Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff

Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff, (born Jan. 15, 1803, Hannover, Hanover—died Dec. 20, 1877, Paris, France), German mechanic who invented the Ruhmkorff coil, a type of induction coil that could produce sparks more than 1 foot (30 centimetres) in length.

After apprenticeship to a German mechanic, Ruhmkorff worked in England with Joseph Brahmah, inventor of the hydraulic press. In 1855 he opened his own shop in Paris, which became widely known for the production of high-quality electrical apparatus. There he built a number of improved induction coils, including one that was awarded a 50,000-franc prize in 1858 by Emperor Napoleon III. Ruhmkorff’s coils consisted of a primary winding and a secondary winding in which a high voltage was produced. The coils were used for the operation of Geissler and Crookes tubes as well as for detonating devices. Ruhmkorff’s doubly wound induction coil later evolved into the alternating-current transformer.


#10 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Yesterday 00:10:32


#4111. Find the distance between the points
(i) (-2,3) and (4,-5).
(ii) (9,0) and the origin.

#11 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Yesterday 00:02:04


#6577. If

find the value of

#12 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Mensuration » 2018-06-15 23:48:14


M # 318. If every side of a triangle is doubled, then find the increase in area of the triangle.
(a) 200%
(b) 300%
(c) 400%
(d) None of these.

#13 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Series and Progressions » 2018-06-15 23:40:32


SP#385. Which term of the Arithmetic Progression 21, 42, 63, .... is 420?

#14 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2018-06-15 15:08:03


#1267. Name the skin condition that consists of areas of hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias and atrophy. It is most frequently seen on the chest or the neck, characterized by red colored pigment on the skin that is commonly associated with sun damage.

#15 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Series and Progressions » 2018-06-15 14:53:40


SP#384. Find is the least possible sum of the Arithmetic Progression -23, -19, -15, ...

#16 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Mensuration » 2018-06-15 14:41:25


M # 317. A copper wire when bent in the form of a square, encloses an area of 121 square meters. If the same wire is bent to form a circle, find the area enclosed.


#17 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2018-06-15 14:30:26


#4110. Find the distance between the points
(i) (-4,0) and (7,0).
(ii) (5,0) and (0,-12).

#18 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2018-06-15 14:22:11



#6576. If

find the value of

#19 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2018-06-15 14:14:52


#2965. What does the noun couchette mean?

#2966. What does the noun coulis mean?

#20 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2018-06-15 13:57:47


#6977. Name the world's longest tunnel with an undersea segment.

#6978. Name the highest active volcano in the world at 6,893 m (22,615 ft).

#21 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2018-06-15 01:13:27

138) Kaleidoscope

Kaleidoscope, optical device consisting of mirrors that reflect images of bits of coloured glass in a symmetrical geometric design through a viewer. The design may be changed endlessly by rotating the section containing the loose fragments. The name is derived from the Greek words kalos (“beautiful”), eïdos (“form”), and skopeïn (“to view”).Kaleidoscope, optical device consisting of mirrors that reflect images of bits of coloured glass in a symmetrical geometric design through a viewer. The design may be changed endlessly by rotating the section containing the loose fragments. The name is derived from the Greek words kalos (“beautiful”), eïdos (“form”), and skopeïn (“to view”).

The kaleidoscope was invented by Sir David Brewster about 1816 and patented in 1817. Sold usually as a toy, the kaleidoscope also has value for the pattern designer.

The kaleidoscope illustrates the image-forming properties of combined, inclined mirrors. If an object is placed between two mirrors inclined at right angles, an image is formed in each mirror. Each of these mirror images is in turn reflected in the other mirror, forming the appearance of four symmetrically placed objects. If the mirrors are inclined at 60°, a hexagonally symmetrical pattern results from one object producing six regularly placed images.

A simple kaleidoscope consists of two thin, wedge-shaped mirror strips touching along a common edge or of a single sheet of bright aluminum bent to an angle of 60° or 45°. The mirrors are enclosed in a tube with a viewing eyehole at one end. At the other end is a thin, flat box that can be rotated; it is made from two glass disks, the outer one ground to act as a diffusing screen. In this box are pieces of coloured glass, tinsel, or beads. When the box is turned or tapped, the objects inside tumble into an arbitrary grouping, and when the diffusing screen is illuminated, the sixfold or eightfold multiplication creates a striking symmetrical pattern. The number of combinations and patterns is effectively without limit.

Some kaleidoscopes dispense with the object box and use a lens to throw images of distant objects on the mirrors, an eyepiece at the viewing eyehole then being an advantage.


#22 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2018-06-15 01:00:01


#1266. What is 'Hematocrit'?

#23 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2018-06-15 00:53:09


#2963. What does the adjective coterminous mean?

#2964. What does the noun couch mean?

#24 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Series and Progressions » 2018-06-15 00:42:11



SP#383. The sum of first two terms of a Geometric Progression is

and the sum to infinity of the series is 3. Find the first term.

#25 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Mensuration » 2018-06-15 00:26:51


M # 316. The sides of a triangle are 5, 12, and 13 units respectively. A rectangle is constructed which is equal in area to the triangle and has a width of 10 units. Find the perimeter of the rectangle.

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