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#1 2023-01-28 02:56:32

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,424

Common logarithm

In mathematics, the common logarithm is the logarithm with base 10. It is also known as the decadic logarithm and as the decimal logarithm, named after its base, or Briggsian logarithm, after Henry Briggs, an English mathematician who pioneered its use, as well as standard logarithm. Historically, it was known as logarithmus decimalis or logarithmus decadis. It is indicated by

, or sometimes Log(x) with a capital L (however, this notation is ambiguous, since it can also mean the complex natural logarithmic multi-valued function). On calculators, it is printed as "log", but mathematicians usually mean natural logarithm (logarithm with base e ≈ 2.71828) rather than common logarithm when they write "log". To mitigate this ambiguity, the ISO 80000 specification recommends that
should be written lg(x), and
should be ln(x).

Before the early 1970s, handheld electronic calculators were not available, and mechanical calculators capable of multiplication were bulky, expensive and not widely available. Instead, tables of base-10 logarithms were used in science, engineering and navigation—when calculations required greater accuracy than could be achieved with a slide rule. By turning multiplication and division to addition and subtraction, use of logarithms avoided laborious and error-prone paper-and-pencil multiplications and divisions. Because logarithms were so useful, tables of base-10 logarithms were given in appendices of many textbooks. Mathematical and navigation handbooks included tables of the logarithms of trigonometric functions as well. For the history of such tables, see log table.

It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


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