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#251 2017-10-09 00:34:59

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,355

Re: crème de la crème

218. Schuyler Wheeler

Schuyler Skaats Wheeler (May 17, 1860 - April 20, 1923) was an American electrical engineer and manufacturer who invented the electric fan, the electric elevator, and the electric fire engine. He helped develop and implement a code of ethics for electrical engineers.

Early life and genealogy

Wheeler was born in New York City on May 17, 1860. He was the son of James Edwin and Annie Wood (Skaats) Wheeler. His father, a lawyer in New York city, was the son of Aaron Reed Wheeler, a land speculator of Waterloo, New York, who came originally from Blackstone, Massachusetts. Wheeler's mother was the daughter of David Schuyler Skaats, the president of the First National Bank of Waterloo, New York. Skaats was an eighth generation descendent of Dominie Gideon Skaats, who had settled in Albany, New York, prior to 1650.

Mid life and career

Wheeler was educated at Columbia Grammar & Preparatory School. Leaving college in 1881, upon the death of his father, he became assistant electrician of the Yablochkov Electric Lighting Company. Wheeler then joined the United States Electric Lighting Company in 1883 when Yablochkov went out of business with his electric company. He joined the engineering staff of Thomas A. Edison and was part of the project when the Pearl Street Station debuted the first incandescent light bulbs. He acted as general manager of the underground distribution system at Newburgh, New York. He was afterwards in charge to lay the Edison underground systems in other cities.

Wheeler worked for Herzog Teleseme Company as electrician for a short time between 1884 to 1885. Then in 1886 he was part of developing and organizing the C and C Electric Motor Company with Charles G. Curtis and Francis B. Crocker. They manufactured electric motors and founded the industry. Wheeler became their main technician and plant manager. Wheeler then left the firm as did Crocker in 1888. They organized the electrical engineering firms of Crocker-Wheeler Motor Company of New York state and the Crocker-Wheeler Company of the state of New Jersey. Wheeler was president of both the firms from 1889. During his tenure with Crocker-Wheeler, he was particularly important in development of the electric motors and applying it to machine tool drives. He was for seven years (1888 - 1895) the electrical expert consultant specialist of the Board of Electrical Control of New York.

In 1900, he purchased the library of Josiah Latimer Clark, which contained the "largest collection of rare electrical works in existence." He presented the "Latimer Clark Library" to the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and that became the foundation of their library housed in New York's Engineering Societies' Building and Engineers' Club. As the IEEE noted, the gift insured "Doctor Wheeler a permanent place in the role of those who have given outstanding service" to the Institute. In his IEEE presidential address in 1906, he was the progenitor of the Code of Ethics for electrical engineers, which was adopted in 1912 by the Institute's Board of Directors.

Family

Wheeler was married, in 1890, to Ella Adams, daughter of Richard N. Peterson of New York City. She died in 1895 and he married again in 1898 to Miss Amy Sutton, daughter of John Joseph Sutton of Rye, New York.

Later life and death

He died of 'angina pectoris' at his home in Manhattan on April 20, 1923. At the time of his death, he chaired the IEEE committee on "code of principles of professional conduct."

Inventions

Wheeler invented many electrical devices. He specialized in power saving electrical tools. In 1889 Wheeler received the Doctor of Science degree from Hobart College.

Wheeler invented the electric fan in 1882 by placing a two-bladed propeller on the shaft of an electric motor. He was awarded the John Scott Medal for this invention in 1904 by the Franklin Institute.

Wheeler invented the electric elevator.

He invented the electric fire engine. Wheeler's Patent for an Electric Fire-engine System was filed on May 23, 1882. It was issued on February 24, 1885 by the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

He invented paralleling of dynamos and series multiple motor control.

Societies and clubs

Wheeler was a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers; the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (President, 1905–1906; Vice President for three years); the University Club; the Lotus Club; the Lawyers' Club; and the Automobile Club.

Wheeler was one of nine incorporators of the United Engineering Society formed in May 1904 and was one of three representatives of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. He was also a member of the Efficiency Society with other millionaires.

Works

Wheeler wrote several technical articles related to electricity in various journals. He wrote articles for Harper's Weekly under the title, "The Cheap John in Electrical Engineering." In 1894 he joint authored a book titled "The Practical Management of Dynamos and Motors" with Professor Francis B. Crocker.

Legacy

Wheeler was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Science by Hobart College (1894); and a Master of Science by Columbia College (1912). His papers are archived primarily with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). His library and collection gift to the IEEE provided a core for their library.

Schuyler%20Skaats%20Wheeler.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#252 2017-10-11 01:21:59

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,355

Re: crème de la crème

219. Éleuthère Irénée du Pont

Éleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours (24 June 1771 - 31 October 1834), known as Irénée du Pont, or E. I. du Pont, was a French-American chemist and industrialist who founded the gunpowder manufacturer E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. His descendants, the Du Pont family, have been one of America's richest and most prominent families since the 19th century, with generations of influential businessmen, politicians and philanthropists.

Early life and family

Du Pont was born 24 June 1771, in Paris, the son of Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours and Nicole-Charlotte Marie-Louise le Dée de Rencourt. His father was a political economist who had been elevated to the nobility in 1784 by "letters patent" granted by King Louis XVI, allowing him to carry the honorable de Nemours suffix. Growing up on his father's estate, "Bois des Fossés", near Égreville, young du Pont was enthusiastic about his studies in most subjects, and showed particular interest in explosives. Du Pont married Sophie Dalmas (1775 - 1828) in 1791, and they had eight children.

Du Pont sailed before his family and landed at Rhode Island on 1 January 1800, along with his father and his brother's family. By 1802, he had established both his business and his family home, Eleutherian Mills, on the Brandywine Creek in Delaware. 1 January is the anniversary of the arrival of the du Pont family in America, and this date is still celebrated by its descendants.

Career in France

In the fall of 1785, du Pont entered the Collège Royal in Paris. Two years later, he was accepted by the friend of his father and noted chemist Antoine Lavoisier as a student in the Régie des poudres, the government agency responsible for the manufacture of gunpowder. It was from Lavoisier that he gained his expertise in nitrate extraction and manufacture. He studied "advanced explosives production techniques".

After a brief apprenticeship, he took a position at the government powder works in Essones but quit after Lavoisier left. In 1791, du Pont began to help his father manage their small publishing house in Paris, where they published a republican newspaper in support of governmental reforms in France. Despite being a soft-spoken chemist, he also had a strong sense of social order. Du Pont was a member of the pro-Revolution national guard and supported the Jacobins. However, on 20 August 1792, both du Pont and his father participated in protecting the escape of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette when the Tuileries Palace was stormed. His father riled up fellow revolutionaries by refusing to go along with the guillotine execution of Louis XVI, and the two men's moderate political views proved to be a liability in revolutionary France.

His father was arrested in 1794, only avoiding execution because of the end of the Reign of Terror. In September 1797, du Pont and his father spent a night in La Force prison while their home and presses were ransacked. These events led his father to lose hope in the political situation in France, and so he began making plans to move their family to America and aspired to create a model community of French émigrés. On 2 October 1799, the du Pont family sold their publishing house and set sail for the United States. They reached Rhode Island on 1 January 1800 and began to settle in the home the eldest du Pont had secured in Bergen Point, New Jersey.

They soon set up an office in New York City to decide what their new line of business would be, but ironically mild-mannered and introverted Éleuthère Irénée was not included in much of these plans. However, he would soon begin to realize the possibilities that his childhood apprenticeship with Lavoisier would allow him and his family in America.

E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company

Du Pont had no thought of becoming involved with gunpowder manufacture again upon his arrival in the United States, but he brought with him an expertise in chemistry and gunpowder making, during a time when the quality of American-made gunpowder was very poor. Delaware legend holds that he decided to go into the gunpowder business during a fateful hunting trip with Major Louis de Tousard, a former French artillery officer then employed by the United States Army to procure gunpowder supplies. Du Pont's gun misfired as he attempted to shoot a bird, which caused him to reflect on his powder-making apprenticeship with Lavoisier as a youth in France. Du Pont commented on the inferior quality of the American-made powder they were using for hunting despite its high price.

At his request, Tousard arranged a tour of an American powder plant. He quickly deduced that the saltpeter being used was of good enough quality, however, the American refining process was poor and inefficient compared with the techniques he had learned in France. He began to think that he could use his experience from France to manufacture gunpowder of a higher quality in the United States and reform the current industry standard for refinery. With his father's blessing, he began to assemble capital for the construction of the first powder mills, and returned to France in the beginning of 1801 to procure the necessary financing and equipment.

The act of association was signed on 21 April 1801, and the company was christened E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company since it was its namesake's ingenuity that had created this venture. His gunpowder company was capitalized at $36,000 with 18 shares at $2,000 each. He purchased a site on Brandywine Creek for $6,740. There were several small buildings and a dam with foundations for a cotton-spinning mill which had been destroyed by fire. The first gunpowder was produced in April 1804.

Death

Du Pont died on 31 October 1834 in Philadelphia. The cause of death was unspecified, due to "conflicting reports of either cholera or a heart attack." He was buried in the Du Pont de Nemours Cemetery on the family property in Wilmington.

Legacy

The company he founded would become one of the largest and most successful American corporations. By the mid-19th century it was the largest supplier of gunpowder to the U.S. military, and supplied as much as 40 percent of the powder used by the Union Army forces during the Civil War. His sons, Alfred V. du Pont (1798 - 1856) and Henry du Pont (1812 - 1889), managed the plant after his death, assisted by his son-in-law, Antoine Bidermann. His grandson Lammot du Pont I (1831 - 1884) was the first president of the United States Gunpowder Trade Association, popularly known as the Powder Trust.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#253 2017-10-13 01:06:14

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,355

Re: crème de la crème

220) Steve Jobs

Steve Jobs co-founded Apple Computers with Steve Wozniak. Under Jobs' guidance, the company pioneered a series of revolutionary technologies, including the iPhone and iPad.

“Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water or do you want a chance to change the world? [Jobs inviting an executive to join Apple]” - Steve Jobs

Synopsis

Steve Jobs was born in San Francisco, California, on February 24, 1955, to two University of Wisconsin graduate students who gave him up for adoption. Smart but directionless, Jobs experimented with different pursuits before starting Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak in 1976. Apple's revolutionary products, which include the iPod, iPhone and iPad, are now seen as dictating the evolution of modern technology, with Jobs having left the company in 1985 and returning more than a decade later. He died in 2011, following a long battle with pancreatic cancer.

Early Life

Steven Paul Jobs was born on February 24, 1955, in San Francisco, California, to Joanne Schieble (later Joanne Simpson) and Abdulfattah "John" Jandali, two University of Wisconsin graduate students who gave their unnamed son up for adoption. His father, Jandali, was a Syrian political science professor, and his mother, Schieble, worked as a speech therapist. Shortly after Steve was placed for adoption, his biological parents married and had another child, Mona Simpson. It was not until Jobs was 27 that he was able to uncover information on his biological parents.

The infant was adopted by Clara and Paul Jobs and named Steven Paul Jobs. Clara worked as an accountant and Paul was a Coast Guard veteran and machinist. The family lived in Mountain View, California, within the area that would later become known as Silicon Valley. As a boy, Jobs and his father worked on electronics in the family garage. Paul showed his son how to take apart and reconstruct electronics, a hobby that instilled confidence, tenacity and mechanical prowess in young Jobs.

While Jobs was always an intelligent and innovative thinker, his youth was riddled with frustrations over formal schooling. Jobs was a prankster in elementary school due to boredom, and his fourth-grade teacher needed to bribe him to study. Jobs tested so well, however, that administrators wanted to skip him ahead to high school—a proposal that his parents declined.

A few years later, while Jobs was enrolled at Homestead High School, he was introduced to his future partner Steve Wozniak, who was attending the University of California, Berkeley. In a 2007 interview with PC World, Wozniak spoke about why he and Jobs clicked so well: "We both loved electronics and the way we used to hook up digital chips," Wozniak said. "Very few people, especially back then, had any idea what chips were, how they worked and what they could do. I had designed many computers, so I was way ahead of him in electronics and computer design, but we still had common interests. We both had pretty much sort of an independent attitude about things in the world. ..."

Apple Computer

After high school, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Lacking direction, he dropped out of college after six months and spent the next 18 months dropping in on creative classes at the school. Jobs later recounted how one course in calligraphy developed his love of typography.

In 1974, Jobs took a position as a video game designer with Atari. Several months later he left the company to find spiritual enlightenment in India, traveling further and experimenting with psychedelic drugs. In 1976, when Jobs was just 21, he and Wozniak started Apple Computer. The duo started in the Jobs family garage, funding their entrepreneurial venture by Jobs selling his Volkswagen bus and Wozniak selling his beloved scientific calculator.

Jobs and Wozniak are credited with revolutionizing the computer industry by democratizing the technology and making machines smaller, cheaper, intuitive and accessible to everyday consumers. Wozniak conceived of a series of user-friendly personal computers, and - with Jobs in charge of marketing - Apple initially marketed the computers for $666.66 each. The Apple I earned the corporation around $774,000. Three years after the release of Apple's second model, the Apple II, the company's sales increased by 700 percent to $139 million. In 1980, Apple Computer became a publicly traded company, with a market value of $1.2 billion by the end of its very first day of trading. Jobs looked to marketing expert John Sculley of Pepsi-Cola to take over the role of CEO for Apple.

Departure from Company

However, the next several products from Apple suffered significant design flaws, resulting in recalls and consumer disappointment. IBM suddenly surpassed Apple in sales, and Apple had to compete with an IBM/PC-dominated business world. In 1984, Apple released the Macintosh, marketing the computer as a piece of a counterculture lifestyle: romantic, youthful, creative. But despite positive sales and performance superior to IBM's PCs, the Macintosh was still not IBM-compatible. Sculley believed Jobs was hurting Apple, and the company's executives began to phase him out.

Not actually having had an official title with the company he co-founded, Jobs was pushed into a more marginalized position and thus left Apple in 1985 to begin a new hardware and software enterprise called NeXT, Inc. The following year Jobs purchased an animation company from George Lucas, which later became Pixar Animation Studios. Believing in Pixar's potential, Jobs initially invested $50 million of his own money in the company. The studio went on to produce wildly popular movies such as Toy Story, Finding Nemo and The Incredibles; Pixar's films have collectively netted $4 billion. The studio merged with Walt Disney in 2006, making Steve Jobs Disney's largest shareholder.

Reinventing Apple

Despite Pixar's success, NeXT, Inc. floundered in its attempts to sell its specialized operating system to mainstream America. Apple eventually bought the company in 1996 for $429 million. The following year, Jobs returned to his post as Apple's CEO.

Just as Steve Jobs instigated Apple's success in the 1970s, he is credited with revitalizing the company in the 1990s. With a new management team, altered stock options and a self-imposed annual salary of $1 a year, Jobs put Apple back on track. His ingenious products (like the iMac), effective branding campaigns and stylish designs caught the attention of consumers once again.

Pancreatic Cancer

In 2003, Jobs discovered that he had a neuroendocrine tumor, a rare but operable form of pancreatic cancer. Instead of immediately opting for surgery, Jobs chose to alter his pesco-vegetarian diet while weighing Eastern treatment options. For nine months, Jobs postponed surgery, making Apple's board of directors nervous. Executives feared that shareholders would pull their stock if word got out that their CEO was ill. But in the end, Jobs' confidentiality took precedence over shareholder disclosure. In 2004, he had a successful surgery to remove the pancreatic tumor. True to form, in subsequent years Jobs disclosed little about his health.

Later Innovations

Apple introduced such revolutionary products as the Macbook Air, iPod and iPhone, all of which have dictated the evolution of modern technology. Almost immediately after Apple releases a new product, competitors scramble to produce comparable technologies. Apple's quarterly reports improved significantly in 2007: Stocks were worth $199.99 a share - a record-breaking number at that time - and the company boasted a staggering $1.58 billion profit, an $18 billion surplus in the bank and zero debt.

In 2008, iTunes became the second-biggest music retailer in America - second only to Walmart, fueled by iTunes and iPod sales. Apple has also been ranked No. 1 on Fortune magazine's list of "America's Most Admired Companies," as well as No. 1 among Fortune 500 companies for returns to shareholders.

Personal Life

Early in 2009, reports circulated about Jobs' weight loss, some predicting his health issues had returned, which included a liver transplant. Jobs had responded to these concerns by stating he was dealing with a hormone imbalance. After nearly a year out of the spotlight, Steve Jobs delivered a keynote address at an invite-only Apple event September 9, 2009.

In the early 1990s, Jobs met Laurene Powell at Stanford business school, where Powell was an MBA student. They married on March 18, 1991, and lived together in Palo Alto, California, with their three children.

Death

On October 5, 2011, Apple Inc. announced that its co-founder had passed away. After battling pancreatic cancer for nearly a decade, Steve Jobs died in Palo Alto. He was 56 years old.

Books and Biopics

A number of books have been written on Jobs' life and career, including an authorized 2011 general biography by Walter Isaacson, a 2012 young adult biography by Karen Blumenthal, and yet another title, 2015's Becoming Steve Jobs by Brent Schlender and Rick Tetzeli. The Isaacson work was critiqued for the depiction of its main subject by Apple's chief executive Tim Cook, who succeeded Jobs.

Biopics inspired by the computer icon's life have been released as well - namely the critically panned Jobs (2013), starring Ashton Kutcher, and Steve Jobs (2015), starring Michael Fassbender and directed by Danny Boyle.

steve-jobs1.jpeg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#254 2017-10-14 15:48:29

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,355

Re: crème de la crème

221) Sir George Cayley

Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (27 December 1773 - 15 December 1857) was a prolific English engineer and is one of the most important people in the history of aeronautics. Many consider him to be the first true scientific aerial investigator and the first person to understand the underlying principles and forces of flight.

In 1799 he set forth the concept of the modern aeroplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion, and control. He was a pioneer of aeronautical engineering and is sometimes referred to as "the father of aviation." He discovered and identified the four forces which act on a heavier-than-air flying vehicle: weight, lift, drag and thrust. Modern aeroplane design is based on those discoveries and on the importance of cambered wings, also identified by Cayley. He constructed the first flying model aeroplane and also diagrammed the elements of vertical flight. He designed the first glider reliably reported to carry a human aloft. He correctly predicted that sustained flight would not occur until a lightweight engine was developed to provide adequate thrust and lift. The Wright brothers acknowledged his importance to the development of aviation.

Cayley represented the Whig party as Member of Parliament for Scarborough from 1832 to 1835, and in 1838 helped found the UK's first Polytechnic Institute, the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now University of Westminster) and served as its chairman for many years. He was a founding member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science and was a distant cousin of the mathematician Arthur Cayley.

General engineering projects

Cayley, from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire, inherited Brompton Hall and Wydale Hall and other estates on the death of his father, the 5th baronet. Captured by the optimism of the times, he engaged in a wide variety of engineering projects. Among the many things that he developed are self-righting lifeboats, tension-spoke wheels,  the "Universal Railway" (his term for caterpillar tractors), automatic signals for railway crossings, seat belts, small scale helicopters, and a kind of prototypical internal combustion engine fuelled by gunpowder. He suggested that a more practical engine might be made using gaseous vapours rather than gunpowder, thus foreseeing the modern internal combustion engine. He also contributed in the fields of prosthetics, air engines, electricity, theatre architecture, ballistics, optics and land reclamation, and held the belief that these advancements should be freely available.

Flying machines

He is mainly remembered for his pioneering studies and experiments with flying machines, including the working, piloted glider that he designed and built. He wrote a landmark three-part treatise titled "On Aerial Navigation" (1809 - 1810), which was published in Nicholson's Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts. The 2007 discovery of sketches in Cayley's school notebooks (held in the archive of the Royal Aeronautical Society Library) revealed that even at school Cayley was developing his ideas on the theories of flight. It has been claimed that these images indicate that Cayley identified the principle of a lift-generating inclined plane as early as 1792. To measure the drag on objects at different speeds and angles of attack, he later built a "whirling-arm apparatus", a development of earlier work in ballistics and air resistance. He also experimented with rotating wing sections of various forms in the stairwells at Brompton Hall.

These scientific experiments led him to develop an efficient cambered airfoil and to identify the four vector forces that influence an aircraft: thrust, lift, drag, and gravity. He discovered the importance of the dihedral angle for lateral stability in flight, and deliberately set the centre of gravity of many of his models well below the wings for this reason; these principles influenced the development of hang gliders. As a result of his investigations into many other theoretical aspects of flight, many now acknowledge him as the first aeronautical engineer. His emphasis on lightness led him to invent a new method of constructing lightweight wheels which is in common use today. For his landing wheels, he shifted the spoke's forces from compression to tension by making them from tightly-stretched string, in effect "reinventing the wheel". Wire soon replaced the string in practical applications and over time the wire wheel came into common use on bicycles, cars, aeroplanes and many other vehicles.

The model glider successfully flown by Cayley in 1804 had the layout of a modern aircraft, with a kite-shaped wing towards the front and an adjustable tailplane at the back consisting of horizontal stabilisers and a vertical fin. A movable weight allowed adjustment of the model's centre of gravity. Around 1843 he was the first to suggest the idea for a convertiplane, an idea which was published in a paper written that same year. At some time before 1849 he designed and built a biplane in which an unknown ten-year-old boy flew. Later, with the continued assistance of his grandson George John Cayley and his resident engineer Thomas Vick, he developed a larger scale glider (also probably fitted with "flappers") which flew across Brompton Dale in front of Wydale Hall in 1853. The first adult aviator has been claimed to be either Cayley's coachman, footman or butler: one source (Gibbs-Smith) has suggested that it was John Appleby, a Cayley employee: however there is no definitive evidence to fully identify the pilot. An entry in volume IX of the 8th Encyclopædia Britannica of 1855 is the most contemporaneous authoritative account regarding the event. A 2007 biography of Cayley (Richard Dee's The Man Who Discovered Flight: George Cayley and the First Airplane) claims the first pilot was Cayley's grandson George John Cayley (1826 - 1878).

A replica of the 1853 machine was flown at the original site in Brompton Dale by Derek Piggott in 1973 for TV and in the mid-1980s[20] for the IMAX film On the Wing. The glider is currently on display at the Yorkshire Air Museum. Another replica, piloted by Allan McWhirter, flew in Salina, Kansas just before Steve Fossett landed the Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer there in March 2003, and later piloted by Richard Branson at Brompton in summer 2003.

Memorial

Cayley is commemorated in Scarborough at the University of Hull, Scarborough Campus, where a hall of residence and a teaching building are named after him. He is one of many scientists and engineers commemorated by having a hall of residence and a bar at Loughborough University named after him. The University of Westminster also honours Cayley's contribution to the formation of the institution with a gold plaque at the entrance of the Regent Street building.

There are display boards and a video film at the Royal Air Force Museum London in Hendon honouring Cayley's achievements and a modern exhibition and film "Pioneers of Aviation" at the Yorkshire Air Museum, Elvington,York. The Sir George Cayley Sailwing Club is a Yorkshire-based free flight club, affiliated to the British Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association, which has borne his name since its founding in 1975.

Cayley_George.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#255 2017-10-16 01:06:51

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,355

Re: crème de la crème

222) Jan Koum

Biography of Jan Koum

Jan Koum (Ukraine, conceived February 24, 1976) is an American web businessman and PC engineer. He and Brian Acton are the CEO and fellow sponsor of WhatsApp, a versatile informing application which was occupied by Facebook Incorporation in February 2014 for US$19 Billion. In 2014, he entered the Forbes rundown of the 400 wealthiest Americans at position 62, with an expected worth of more than seven billion dollars and a large portion of billion dollars. He was the most astounding positioned newcomer.

Early Life

Koum was conceived in Kyiv, Ukraine. He is Jewish. He experienced childhood in Festive, outside Kyiv, and moved with his mom and grandma to Mountain View, California in 1992, where a social bolster system helped the family to get a little apartment comprised of two-room, at the age of 16. His dad had expected to join the family later, however at long last stayed in Ukraine. At first Koum’s mom acted as a sitter, while he himself filled in as a cleaner at a staple.

Education

By the age of 18 he got to be occupied himself with programming. He was recruited at San Jose State University and at the same time he worked at Ernst & Young as a security analyzer.

Court Case

In February 1996, a limiting request was allowed against Koum in state court in San Jose, California. An ex point by point affairs in which she said Koum verbally and physically debilitated her. In October 2014, Koum said in regards to the controlling request, “I am embarrassed about the way I acted, and embarrassed that my conduct constrained her to make lawful move.”

Career

In 1997, Jan Koum was acquired by Yahoo as a framework engineer, not long after he met Brian Acton while working at Ernst & Young as a security analyzer. Throughout these nine years, they worked at Yahoo. In September 2007 Koum and Acton left Yahoo and took a year off, going around South America and playing extreme Frisbee. Both connected, and fizzled, to work at Facebook. In January 2009, he purchased an iPhone and understood that the then-seven-month-old App Store spoke the truth to generate an entire new industry of applications. He went to his companion Alex Fishman and the two spoke for quite a long time about Koum’s thought for an application over tea at Fishman’s kitchen counter. Koum very quickly picked the name WhatsApp in light of the fact that it seemed like “what’s up,” and after a week on his birthday, Feb. 24, 2009, he fused WhatsApp Inc. in California.

Mark Zuckerberg

WhatsApp got to be prominent in only a little measure of time, and this got Face book’s consideration. Facebook’s originator Mark Zuckerberg initially reached Koum in the spring 2012. The two started meeting at a coffeehouse in Los Altos, California, then started a progression of suppers and strolls in the slopes above Silicon Valley.

On February ninth, Zuckerberg invited Koum to dinner at his home, and formally proposed Koum an arrangement to join the Facebook board.

WhatsApp

WhatsApp is a texting application for cell phones that works under a membership plan of action. The exclusive, cross-stage application utilizes the Internet to send instant messages, pictures, feature, and client area and sound media messages. In January 2015, WhatsApp was the most internationally mainstream informing application with more than 600 million dynamic clients. In April 2015, WhatsApp came to 800 million dynamic users. In September 2015 the client base has grown up to 900 million.

WhatsApp Inc., situated in Mountain View, California, was obtained by Facebook on February 19, 2014, for roughly US$16 billion

Present

Today Jan Koum is 37 years of age, one of the wealthiest men in the online networking industry, yet as thinking back, in a positive light, on the basic life that he had in the Ukraine and how his vision of moment straightforward informing has changed the life of many millions.

Jan-Koum-Founder-of-WhatsApp.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#256 2017-10-21 01:51:50

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,355

Re: crème de la crème

223) Sir Edwin Lutyens

Sir Edwin Lutyens, in full Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens (born March 29, 1869, London, England—died January 1, 1944, London), English architect noted for his versatility and range of invention along traditional lines. He is known especially for his planning of New Delhi and his design of the Viceroy’s House there.

After studying at the Royal College of Art, London, he was articled in 1887 to a firm of architects but soon left to set up in practice on his own. In his early works (1888–95) he assimilated the traditional forms of local Surrey buildings. Lutyens’ style changed when he met the landscape gardener Gertrude Jekyll, who taught him the “simplicity of intention and directness of purpose” she had learned from John Ruskin. At Munstead Wood, Godalming, Surrey (1896), Lutyens first showed his personal qualities as a designer. This house, balancing the sweep of the roof with high buttressed chimneys and offsetting small doorways with long strips of windows, made his reputation. A brilliant series of country houses followed in which Lutyens adapted varied styles of the past to the demands of contemporary domestic architecture.

About 1910 Lutyens’ interest shifted to larger, civil projects, and in 1912 he was selected to advise on the planning of the new Indian capital at Delhi. His plan, with a central mall and diagonal avenues, may have owed something to Pierre-Charles L’Enfant’s plan for Washington, D.C., and to Christopher Wren’s plan for London after the Great Fire, but the total result was quite different: a garden-city pattern, based on a series of hexagons separated by broad avenues with double lines of trees. In his single most important building, the Viceroy’s House (1913–30), he combined aspects of classical architecture with features of Indian decoration. Lutyens was knighted in 1918.

After World War I Lutyens became architect to the Imperial War Graves Commission, for which he designed the Cenotaph, London (1919–20); the Great War Stone (1919); and military cemeteries in France. His vast project for the Roman Catholic cathedral at Liverpool was incomplete at his death.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#257 2017-10-23 00:27:04

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

224) Francis Pettit Smith

ir Francis Pettit Smith (1808 - 12 February 1874) was an English inventor and, along with John Ericsson, one of the inventors of the screw propeller. He was also the driving force behind the construction of the world's first screw-propelled steamship, SS Archimedes.

Early life

He was born at Hythe, Kent where his father was the postmaster. He was educated at a private school in Ashford run by the Rev. Alexander Power, before working as a grazing Farmer on Romney Marsh, later moving to Hendon in Middlesex where he continued to farm for 37 years.

Career

As a boy he had acquired great skill in the construction of model boats and took special interest in their means of propulsion. This fascination with boats remained with him and in 1834 on a reservoir near his farm, he perfected the propulsion of a model boat by means of a wooden screw driven by a spring. He became utterly convinced that this form of propulsion was greatly superior to the paddle wheel which was in use at the time. The following year he built a superior model with which he performed a number of experiments at Hendon and in 1836 took out a patent for propelling vessels by means of a screw revolving beneath the water at the stern.

After securing the financial backing of several parties, he helped organize the Propeller Steamship Company which in 1839 built the world's first successful screw-propelled steamship, SS Archimedes. A short time later, he was instrumental in persuading Isambard Kingdom Brunel to change the design of the SS Great Britain from paddle to screw propulsion, by lending Brunel the Archimedes for several months. He also helped persuade the British Admiralty to adopt screw propulsion.

Later life

Between 1864 and 1870 he resided in an elegant Victorian house at 17 Sydenham Hill SE26 , near Crystal Palace Park, a fact noted on a Blue Plaque.

In 1860 the government appointed him to the post of curator of the Patent Museum at South Kensington. In 1871 a knighthood was conferred upon him.

Smith died at 15 Thurloe Place, South Kensington in February 1874, and is buried in St Leonards Cemetery, Hythe, Kent.

Personal life

Smith married twice and had children by each marriage.

Legacy

Smith negotiated with the Governors of Dulwich College for the lease of a plot of land on Sydenham Hill where he built his house named Centra House in 1864. The house was designed by Charles Barry, Jr. (the eldest son of Sir Charles Barry). The house still stands today. In the grounds Smith had planted a considerable shrubbery and had use of woodlands down to College Road. A later resident added a Pulhamite fountain and small grotto to the rear of the residence and renamed the house Dilkoosh. It was later renamed to its present title - Fountain House.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#258 2017-10-24 13:56:15

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

225) Sir Joseph Wilson Swan

Joseph Swan, in full Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (born October 31, 1828, Sunderland, Durham, England - died May 27, 1914, Warlingham, Surrey), English physicist and chemist who produced an early electric lightbulb and invented the dry photographic plate, an important improvement in photography and a step in the development of modern photographic film.

After serving his apprenticeship with a druggist in his native town, Swan became first assistant and later partner in a firm of manufacturing chemists in Newcastle. Working with wet photographic plates, he noticed that heat increased the sensitivity of the silver bromide emulsion. By 1871 he had devised a method of drying the wet plates, initiating the age of convenience in photography. Eight years later he patented bromide paper, the paper commonly used in modern photographic prints.

Some years earlier, in 1860, Swan developed a primitive electric light, one that utilized a filament of carbonized paper in an evacuated glass bulb. Lack of a good vacuum and an adequate electric source, however, resulted in a short lifetime for the bulb and inefficient light. His design was substantially the one used by Thomas A. Edison nearly 20 years later. In 1880, after the improvement of vacuum techniques, both Swan and Edison produced a practical lightbulb. Three years later, while searching for a better carbon filament for his lightbulb, Swan patented a process for squeezing nitrocellulose through holes to form fibres. In 1885 he exhibited his equipment and some articles made from the artificial fibres. The textile industry has utilized his process. Swan was knighted in 1904.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

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#259 2017-10-29 00:23:42

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

226) Frederick Walton

Frederick Edward Walton (13 March 1834 – 16 May 1928), was an English manufacturer and inventor whose invention of Linoleum in Staines was patented in 1860. He also invented Lincrusta in 1877.

Walton was born in 1834 near Halifax. In 1864, he formed the Linoleum Manufacturing Company and by 1869 the factory in Staines was exporting to Europe and the United States.

He died in 1928, aged 94.

(Lincrusta is a deeply embossed wallcovering. A British invention, it was the brainchild of inventor Frederick Walton who earlier (1860) patented linoleum floor covering. Lincrusta was launched in 1877 and was used in a host of applications from royal homes to railway carriages. The linseed gel continues to dry for many years, so the surface gets tougher over time. Many examples over a hundred years old can still be found throughout the world.

Lincrusta is made from a paste of gelled linseed oil and wood flour spread onto a paper base. It is then rolled between steel rollers, one of which has a pattern embossed upon it. It was originally manufactured in Sunbury-on-Thames until 1918 when the manufacturing was moved to Darwen, Lancashire).

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#260 2017-10-31 14:50:08

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

227) William Stokes

William Stokes (1 October 1804 - 10 January 1878) was an Irish physician, who was Regius Professor of Physic at the University of Dublin. He graduated from the University of Edinburgh Medical School with an MD in 1825 later returning the practice in Dublin at Meath Hospital. He went on to create two important works on cardiac and pulmonary diseases - A Treatise on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of the Chest (1837) and The Diseases of the Heart and Aorta (1854) – as well as one of the first treatises on the use of the stethoscope. He emphasised the importance of clinical examination in forming diagnoses, and of ward-based learning for students of medicine.

Both Cheyne–Stokes breathing (the alternation of apnoea with tachypnoea) and Stokes - Adams syndrome are named after him. Stokes' sign is a severe throbbing in the abdomen, at the right of the umbilicus, in acute enteritis. Stokes law is that a muscle situated above an inflamed membrane is often affected with paralysis.

In 1858 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In June 1861 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society as: "The Author of A work on the Diseases of the Lungs, and of a work on the Diseases of the Heart and Aorta – and of other contributions to Pathological Science. Eminent as a Physician". He was elected President of the Royal Irish Academy for 1874 - 76.

His son, Whitley Stokes, was a notable lawyer and Celtic scholar, his daughter Margaret Stokes an archaeologist and writer.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#261 2017-11-02 01:02:32

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

228) Frederick Kipping

Frederic Stanley Kipping (16 August 1863 - 1 May 1949) was an English chemist.

He was born in Manchester, England, the son of James Kipping, a Bank of England official, and educated at Manchester Grammar School before enrolling in 1879 at Owens College (now Manchester University) for an external degree from the University of London. After working for the local gas company for a short time he went in 1886 to Germany to work under William Henry Perkin, Jr. in the laboratories of Adolf von Baeyer at Munich University.

Back in England, he took a position as demonstrator for Perkin, who had been appointed professor at Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh. In 1890, Kipping was appointed chief demonstrator in chemistry for the City and Guilds of London Institute, where he worked for the chemist Henry Edward Armstrong. In 1897 he moved to University College, Nottingham as professor of the chemistry department, and became the first newly endowed Sir Jesse Boot professor of chemistry at the university in 1928. He remained there until his retirement in 1936.

Kipping undertook much of the pioneering work into the development of silicon polymers (silicones) at Nottingham. He pioneered the study of the organic compounds of silicon (organosilicon) and coined the term silicone. His research formed the basis for the worldwide development of the synthetic rubber and silicone-based lubricant industries. He also co-wrote, with Perkin, a standard textbook in organic chemistry (Organic Chemistry, Perkin and Kipping, 1899).

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June, 1897. He was awarded their Davy Medal in 1918 and delivered their Bakerian Lecture in 1936.

He retired in 1936 and died in Criccieth, Wales. He had married in 1888 Lilian Holland, one of three sisters. Both his brothers-in-law were eminent scientists themselves (Arthur Lapworth and William Henry Perkin, Jr.)

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#262 2017-11-04 01:16:50

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Re: crème de la crème

229) Whitcomb L. Judson

Whitcomb L. Judson (March 7, 1846 - December 7, 1909) was an American machine salesman, mechanical engineer and inventor. Judson invented the zipper in the 1890s.

Early life

Judson was born in Chicago, Illinois. According to the 1860 census, he lived in Illinois, and served in the Union army. He enlisted in 1861 at Oneida, Illinois in the Forty-Second Illinois Cavalry. Judson attended Knox College in his hometown Galesburg, Illinois. He was found in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1886. In 1886 and 1887 the Minneapolis city directory identifies Judson as a "traveling agent" - a traveling salesman working probably for Pitts Agricultural Works. A couple of years later Judson began working for Earle Manufacturing Company with Harry L. Earle as the head of the firm. Judson sold band cutters and grain scales for them along with other items as one of their salesmen.

Street railway

Judson began his efforts of making inventions around 1888 to 1889. His concentration was on inventions for a "pneumatic street railway". His first patented invention was for a "mechanical movement" related to that. In 1889 Judson obtained six patents related to his concept of a street railway running on compressed air. The concept was similar to the cable railway system but with pistons suspended beneath the railcar. Similar systems were tried throughout the nineteenth century, however they all failed because of sealing problems. Judson's similar inventions were also impractical and as a whole not very successful. The street railway concept ultimately went electric. It turned out, however, that Earle was promoter for the Judson Pneumatic Street Railway. They even had a demonstration line in 1890 in Washington, D.C. for about a mile that was at what is today Georgia Avenue. It ran for only a few weeks before they shut it down due to technical problems. A cable streetcar firm bought them out and turned it into an electric streetcar since Judson's system was impractical.

Zipper

Judson was an inventor who was awarded 30 patents over a sixteen-year career. He received fourteen patents on street railway ideas before his most noteworthy invention, a chain-lock fastener. This was the precursor to the modern zipper which he developed and invented in 1890. Judson is recognized as the inventor of the zipper. He also invented a "clasp-locker" automation production machine that made his fastener device inexpensively. There were many technical problems in making the "clasp-lockers" however.

Judson’s metal zipper fastener device was called a "clasp-locker" in his day, not a zipper - which name came into existence many years after his death. The "clasp locker" was a complicated hook-and-eye fastener with an arrangement of hooks and eyes run by a "guide" for closing and opening a clothing item. The first application was as a shoe fastener and there is mention in the patents for possible applications for corsets, gloves, mail bags, and "generally wherever it is desired to detachably connect a pair adjacent flexible parts."  It is also said one of the reasons he invented this device was to relieve the tedium of fastening high button boots that were fashionable in those days.

Judson's first slide fastener patent was applied for in November 1891. At the time the United States Patent Office didn't require a working model of a patent, only that the invention was to be a novel idea. However, his invention was almost rejected by the patent assistant examiner Thomas Hart Anderson because there were several types of shoe fasteners already patented. He applied for a second patent on an improved version for the same item some nine months later before the first was even approved.

The patent examiner was starting to wonder if Judson wasn't on a fishing expedition to ascertain if his idea was actually novel. However, eventually, after the last amendment was filed, the patent was approved in May 1893, along with an improved version. When the two patents were finally issued on August 29 (along with 378 others that day), they received the numbers U.S.P. 504,038 (first) and U.S.P. 504,037 (second). These patents describe several designs of the "clasp-locker". Later design patents of the fastener describe opposite elements on each side that are identical to each other and fit together by the engaging of "pintles" and "sockets." In his patent U.S.P. 557,207 of 1896 is a description mostly like the zipper of today.

... each link of each chain is provided both with a male and female coupling part, and when the chains are coupled together the female part of each link on one chain is engaged by the male part of a link on the other chain.

In 1893 Judson exhibited his new invention at the Chicago World's Fair where it had its debut. Judson launched the Universal Fastener Company to manufacture his new invention, together with Harry L. Earle and Lewis Walker. The Universal Fastener Company started out in Chicago and then moved to Elyria, Ohio. It then moved to Catasauqua, Pennsylvania, and then to Hoboken, New Jersey. The name changed eventually to Automatic Hook and Eye Company.

Judson's "clasp-locker" met with little commercial success at first. He ultimately never saw much success in the "clasp-locker" as a fashion item during his lifetime. Judson made a "C-curity" clasp-locker fastener in 1905 which was an improved version of his previous patents. It tended to break open unexpectedly like the predecessors. Clothing manufacturers showed little interest in Judson's fastener perhaps because of this reason.

An improved version of 1896 came with a cam-action slider which is somewhat similar to the locker and unlocker shown in my prior patents, but which in this combination operates with a somewhat different action involving an automatic movement of the slider backward in the uncoupling action of the chains, and which slider is in this case designed to remain permanently on the shoe.

Judson made his invention to save people the trouble of buttoning and unbuttoning their shoes every day as shows in his wording in the patent application. He describes this in his patent U.S.P. 557,207

...From the foregoing statements it must be obvious that a shoe equipped with my device has all the advantages peculiar to a lace-shoe, while at the same time it is free from the annoyances hitherto incidental to lace-shoes on account of the lacing and unlacing required every time the shoes were put on or taken off the feet and on account of the lacing-strings coming untied. With my device the lacing-strings may be adjusted from time to time to take up the slack in the shoes, and the shoes may be fastened or loosened more quickly than any other form of shoe hitherto devised, so far as I am aware.

In 1913 the zipper was improved by the Swedish-American engineer, Gideon Sundback, and also by Catharina Kuhn-Moos of Europe. Sundback successfully redesigned Judson's fastener into a more streamlined and reliable form called "Talon." Automatic Hook and Eye Company then changed its name to the Hookless Fastener Company. In 1937 the Hookless Fastener Company became Talon, Inc.

In 1918 a textile company manufactured flying suits for the United States Navy with this fastener. Judson's company received an order for thousands of their "clasp-locker" fasteners. Soon thereafter they appeared on gloves and tobacco pouches. The B. F. Goodrich company in 1923 installed these fasteners in their rubber galoshes, calling the new design "Zippers." This then became the name of the fastener itself. The design of the fastener today is much like Sundback's improvement of Judson's "clasp-locker."

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#263 2017-11-09 03:02:55

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

230) David Ogilvy

David Ogilvy, in full David Mackenzie Ogilvy (born June 23, 1911, West Horsley, Surrey, England - died July 21, 1999, near Bonnes, France), British advertising executive known for his emphasis on creative copy and campaign themes, founder of the agency of Ogilvy & Mather.

Ogilvy was the son of a classics scholar and broker, but financial reverses left the family in straitened circumstance when he was a boy. Nonetheless, he earned scholarships to Fettes College, Edinburgh, and to Christ Church, Oxford. After leaving Oxford without a degree, Ogilvy found work as an apprentice chef at an exclusive Parisian hotel and as a stove salesman. Then a brother working in the British advertising agency of Mather & Crowther offered him a job. He soon became an account executive and went to the United States to learn American advertising techniques. While there, Ogilvy worked for the American pollster George Gallup; he later credited much of his success in advertising to this experience.

During World War II Ogilvy served in British Intelligence in Washington, D.C., and for a time was second secretary at the British embassy there. After the war, he tried farming in the Amish area of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, but, being unable to make a living at it, he turned again to advertising. In 1948 Ogilvy and Anderson Hewitt formed Hewitt, Ogilvy, Benson & Mather, with some financial help from his former English employers and another English advertising agency. They started out with British clients, such as the manufacturers of Wedgwood china and Rolls-Royce. Ogilvy’s successful ad campaigns for early clients soon garnered for the agency such major American ad accounts as General Foods and American Express. In 1966, with Ogilvy at the helm, the firm of Ogilvy & Mather became one of the first advertising firms to go public. The company expanded throughout the 1970s and ’80s, and in 1989 it was bought by WPP Group PLC. Ogilvy was then made chairman of WPP, but he stepped down from that position three years later, retiring to a chateau in France.

Ogilvy’s legacy includes the concept of “branding,” a strategy that closely links a product name with a product in the hope of engendering “brand” loyalty in the consumer, and a distinctive style that bore his personal stamp - among his notable ads were those for Hathaway shirts, featuring a distinguished-looking man with an eyepatch, and for Rolls-Royce, which proclaimed “At sixty miles an hour the loudest noise in this new Rolls-Royce comes from the electric clock.” He wrote two influential books on advertising - Confessions of an Advertising Man (1963) and Ogilvy on Advertising (1983) -and An Autobiography (1997; a revised edition of a book originally published as Blood, Brains, and Beer, 1978).

Ogilvy insisted that it is better not to advertise than to use poorly designed or poorly written advertisements.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#264 2017-11-11 00:12:51

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

231) Micheal Phelps

The Most Decorated Olympian Of All Time

By the time he retired at Rio 2106 at the age of 31, Michael Phelps had collected a total of 23 golds, three silvers and two bronzes at the Olympics, a record-breaking haul that looks unlikely to be bettered for many years to come.

The most decorated athlete of all at Rio 2016, where he won five golds and a silver, Phelps suffered attention deficit/hyperactivity ­disorder as a child and was encouraged to take up swimming at the age of seven to control his energy. Over the years he developed into a champion swimmer, beating record after record in every age category in which he competed.

From Sydney to Athens

Phelps began to forge his Olympic legend at the age of 15, when he finished fifth in the 200m butterfly final at Sydney 2000. Reflecting on that achievement, the ever-demanding swimmer said: “It was great, I was fifth, that’s a pretty big accomplishment. But I didn’t want it. I wanted more. I was within half a second of medaling – it was literally, if I would have taken it out a little bit faster, maybe I would have had a chance.”

“There are reasons why I swam every holiday, every Christmas, every birthday,” added Phelps, explaining why he was the most dedicated of swimmers. “I was trying to be as prepared as I could, and I tried to see what I could really do and what my potential was. I just really did kind of whatever it took.”

Phelps had won five world titles by the time he opened his Olympic account at Athens 2004. Competing in eight events in the Greek capital, he took gold in the 100m and 200m butterfly, 200m and 400m individual medley and the 4x100m and 4x200m freestyle relays with his USA team-mates. He also won bronze in the 200m freestyle and the 4x100m freestyle relay.

His eight-medal haul matched the single Summer Games record set by Soviet gymnast Aleksandr Ditatyn, at Moscow 1980, while his tally of golds was only one fewer than the record seven won by his fellow countryman Mark Spitz, in the pool at Munich 1972.

“Everyone was comparing me to Mark Spitz. But for me – I still say this a lot – it was never about beating Mark Spitz,” Phelps later said. “It never was. It was about becoming the first Michael Phelps, not the second Mark Spitz. And that’s truly what I always dreamed of as a kid. I dreamed of doing something that no one had ever done before.”

Beijing Eight

Another 12 titles came his way at the 2005 and 2007 FINA World Aquatics Championships, held in Montreal and Melbourne respectively, a sign of things to come at Beijing 2008, where he took gold in all eight events he contested. It was a feat unprecedented in any sport in the history of the Games.

In topping the podium in the 100m and 200m butterfly, 200m freestyle, 200m and 400m individual medleys and the 4x100m and 4x200m freestyle relays and the 4x100m medley relay, the voracious Phelps posted seven world records and an Olympic record in the 100m butterfly. His exploits in the Chinese capital made him the most decorated of all Olympians with 14 gold medals.

In the years that followed, the Bob Bowman prodigy became the most decorated swimmer in the history of the world championships, winning five more titles in Rome in 2009 and a further four in Shanghai two years later to take his Worlds medal collection to 33, 26 of them golds.

Four Games And Out?

In making his fourth Olympic appearance at London 2012, where he announced his impending retirement, Phelps became the first male swimmer to win the 100m butterfly and 200m individual medley titles at three consecutive Games. As well as landing the 4x200m freestyle relay title, he took silver in the 200m butterfly and the 4x100m freestyle relay before claiming an 18th Olympic gold in the 4x100m medley.

Speaking after that final success, an emotional Phelps said: “It’s tough to put into words right now, but I finished my career how I wanted to. Through the ups and downs of my career I’ve still been able to do everything that I’ve ever wanted to accomplish. I’ve been able to do things that no-one else has ever been able to do and this is one of the funniest ways to finish it, in a relay.”

Phelps’ London exploits took his career tally of Olympic medals to a record 23, moving him past the previous best of 18, amassed by Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina in the 1950s and 60s.

A Rousing Return

Despite having announced his retirement, Phelps could not resist the lure of the pool, and was back in training in April 2014, his sights set on Rio 2016. Turning in a typically brilliant performance at the U.S. Trials in Omaha in late June 2016, he qualified for three individual and three relay events.

Still the world-record holder for the 100m butterfly (49.82 seconds), 200m butterfly (1:51.51), 400m individual medley (4:03.84) and the 4x100m (3:08.24) and 4x200m freestyle (6:58.55) relays, the greatest swimmer of them all was in determined mood ahead of Rio 2016.

“I’m 31 years old and swimming faster than I ever have before,” he warned, letting everyone know that he was still hungry to add to his record tally of Olympic titles and medals.

Phelps began his Rio campaign by swimming a decisive second leg in the 4x100m freestyle relay, helping the USA win gold ahead of France and Australia, the 19th of his storied career. The 20th and 21st came within an hour of each other two days later, as he won the 200m butterfly title for the third time and the 4x200m freestyle for a fourth.

After the second of those victories, and having secured his status as one of the heroes of the Rio Games, he emerged from the water and sat on his starting block, soaking up the adulation of the crowd.

Two days later, he won the 200m medley for the fourth time in a row, joining compatriots Al Oerter (discus) and Carl Lewis (long jump) as the only athletes to have won the same individual event at four consecutive Games.

“This all started and began with one little dream as a kid to change the sport of swimming, try to do something nobody has ever done,” he said after making it gold number 22.

The following day he shared silver with close friends and rivals Chad Le Clos and Laszlo Cseh behind Singaporean youngster Joseph Schooling in the 100m butterfly.

“Chad and I have raced each other quite a few times in the last four years, and as for Laszlo and me, I can’t even remember the first time we competed against each other,” he said after securing a 27th Olympic medal. “So it’s kind of special, and a great way for me to finish my last individual race.”

Phelps’ last race of all came on 13 August, when he made a typically brilliant contribution to the USA’s victory in the 4x100m medley, swimming a superb butterfly leg en route to collecting his 23rd Olympic gold and 28th medal overall.

“Being able to close the door on this sport how I wanted to – that’s why I’m happy now,” Phelps said after completing his six-medal haul in Rio. “I was a little kid with a dream, which turned into a couple of medals. Just being able to finish this way is special because now I’m able to start the next chapter in my life.”

In December 2016, Phelps posed with every one of his Olympic medals for the magazine Sports Illustrated. In total they weighed eight kilograms, a staggering haul that will take some matching.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#265 2017-11-13 00:49:25

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

232) Satya Nadella

Satya Narayana Nadella (born 19 August 1967) is an Indian American business executive. He is the current Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Microsoft, succeeding Steve Ballmer in 2014. Before becoming CEO, he was Executive Vice President of Microsoft's cloud and enterprise group, responsible for building and running the company's computing platforms, developer tools and cloud computing services.

Early life

Nadella was born in Hyderabad (now in the state of Telangana). His father, Bukkapuram Nadella Yugandher, was a civil servant of the Indian Administrative Service.

Nadella attended the Hyderabad Public School, Begumpet before attaining Bachelor of Engineering degree in electrical engineering from Manipal Institute of Technology (then part of Mangalore University) in 1988.

Nadella subsequently traveled to the U.S. to study for a Master of Science in Computer Science at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, receiving his degree in 1990. Later he received his MBA degree from University of Chicago

Nadella said he "always wanted to build things" and that "electrical engineering was a great way for me to go discover what turned out to become a passion."

Career

Sun Microsystems

Nadella worked at Sun Microsystems as a member of its technology staff prior to joining Microsoft in 1992.

Microsoft

At Microsoft, Nadella has led major projects that included the company's move to cloud computing and the development of one of the largest cloud infrastructures in the world.

Nadella worked as the senior vice-president of Research and Development (R&D) for the Online Services Division and vice-president of the Microsoft Business Division. Later, he was made the president of Microsoft's $19 billion Server and Tools Business and led a transformation of the company's business and technology culture from client services to cloud infrastructure and services. He has been credited for helping bring Microsoft's database, Windows Server and developer tools to its Azure cloud. The revenue from Cloud Services grew to $20.3 billion in June 2013 from $16.6 billion when he took over in 2011. He received $18 million in 2016 pay.

Nadella's 2013 base salary was nearly $700,000, for a total compensation, with stock bonuses, of $7.6 million.

Previous positions held by Nadella include:

President of the Server & Tools Division (9 February 2011 – February 2014)
Senior Vice-President of Research and Development for the Online Services Division (March 2007 – February 2011)
Vice-President of the Business Division
Corporate Vice-President of Business Solutions and Search & Advertising Platform Group
Executive Vice-President of Cloud and Enterprise group

On 4 February 2014, Nadella was announced as the new CEO of Microsoft, the third chief executive in the company's history, following Bill Gates and Steve Ballmer.

In October 2014, Nadella courted controversy when he made a statement that women should not ask for a raise and should trust the system. The statement was made while he was attending an event on Women in Computing in Phoenix, AZ. Nadella was roundly criticised for the statement and he apologised later on Twitter. He later sent an email to Microsoft employees admitting he was "Completely wrong".

Nadella changed the company’s direction after becoming CEO. His tenure has emphasized openness to working with companies and technologies with which Microsoft also competes, including Apple Inc., Salesforce, IBM, and Dropbox. In contrast to previous Microsoft campaigns against the Linux operating system, Nadella proclaimed that "Microsoft ♥ Linux", and in 2016, Microsoft joined the Linux Foundation as a Platinum member.

Under Nadella, Microsoft revised its mission statement to "empower every person and organization on the planet to achieve more". In comparison to founder Bill Gates's "a PC on every desk and in every home, running Microsoft software", Nadella says that it is an enduring mission, rather than a temporal goal. His key goal has been transforming Microsoft’s corporate culture into one that values continual learning and growth. He has cited the book Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol Dweck as inspiration for this philosophy around a "growth mindset".

Nadella's leadership of Microsoft included a series of high profile acquisitions of other companies, to redirect Microsoft's focus. His first major acquisition was of Mojang, a Swedish game company best known for the popular freeform computer building game Minecraft, in late 2014, for $2.5 billion. Minecraft was notably a cross-platform game, with versions running on Apple's iOS mobile devices, and the Sony PlayStation dedicated gaming console, as well as Microsoft's Xbox. He followed that in 2016 by purchasing Xamarin and LinkedIn.

In the years since becoming CEO, Nadella is viewed as having done well, with Microsoft stock having risen more than 60% since he took over, and achieving an all-time high.

Personal life

In 1992, Nadella married Anupama, daughter of his father's Indian Administrative Service (IAS) batchmate, K.R. Venugopal. The couple has three children, a son and two daughters, and live in Bellevue, Washington.

Nadella is an avid reader of American and Indian poetry. He also has an interest in cricket (his passion growing up), having played on his school team. He has mentioned having learned something about leadership and teamwork from cricket. He has a cricket bat signed by Sachin Tendulkar as his favorite personal possession.

In June 2016, it was announced Nadella would publish his first book, with a publish date planned for fall 2017. Titled 'Hit Refresh', the book will explore his life, Microsoft and how technology will shape the future. The profits from the book will be put towards Microsoft Philanthropies where it will go on to help nonprofits.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#266 2017-11-15 02:39:29

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,355

Re: crème de la crème

233) Jacques E. Brandenberger

Jacques Edwin Brandenberger (19 October 1872 – 13 July 1954) was a Swiss chemist and textile engineer who in 1908 invented cellophane. He was awarded the Franklin Institute's Elliott Cresson Medal in 1937.

Brandenberger was born in Zurich in 1872. He graduated from the University of Bern in 1895. In 1908 Brandenberger invented cellophane. Made from wood cellulose, cellophane was intended as a coating to make cloth more resistant to staining. After several years of further research and refinements he began production of cellophane in 1920 marketing it for industrial purposes. He sold the US rights to DuPont in 1923.

jacques-e-brandenberger.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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