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**mathaholic****Member**- From: Juliania
- Registered: 2012-11-29
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Hi;

I am confused about the history. Can you tell me more about it?

"What is the square root of 2? 1.4141592653589793238" Seriously, I thought it was that. Too round?

3.141592653589793238...

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**anonimnystefy****Real Member**- From: The Foundation
- Registered: 2011-05-23
- Posts: 15,657

Have you checked the Wikipedia page on it?

Here lies the reader who will never open this book. He is forever dead.

Taking a new step, uttering a new word, is what people fear most. ― Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Crime and Punishment

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**bobbym****Administrator**- From: Bumpkinland
- Registered: 2009-04-12
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Ever heard of the Dutchman Leeuwenhoek?

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**mathaholic****Member**- From: Juliania
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Yup, Anton van Leeuwenhoek.

"What is the square root of 2? 1.4141592653589793238" Seriously, I thought it was that. Too round?

3.141592653589793238...

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**bobbym****Administrator**- From: Bumpkinland
- Registered: 2009-04-12
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The guy who first invented it but Robert Hooke gets the credit for the modern form.

**In mathematics, you don't understand things. You just get used to them.**

**I agree with you regarding the satisfaction and importance of actually computing some numbers. I can't tell you how often I see time and money wasted because someone didn't bother to run the numbers.**

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**mathaholic****Member**- From: Juliania
- Registered: 2012-11-29
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So, Robert Hooke created the modernized style?

"What is the square root of 2? 1.4141592653589793238" Seriously, I thought it was that. Too round?

3.141592653589793238...

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**bobbym****Administrator**- From: Bumpkinland
- Registered: 2009-04-12
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Yes, he used two lenses rather than one.

**In mathematics, you don't understand things. You just get used to them.**

**I agree with you regarding the satisfaction and importance of actually computing some numbers. I can't tell you how often I see time and money wasted because someone didn't bother to run the numbers.**

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**mathaholic****Member**- From: Juliania
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Oh. Why two?

3.141592653589793238...

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**bobbym****Administrator**- From: Bumpkinland
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The two lenses are called ocular and objective. When you use one lens as Leeuwenhoek did you get more distortion.

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**mathaholic****Member**- From: Juliania
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Why?

By the way, I know the objectives:

Scanner 4x

LPO 10x

HPO 40x

OIO 100x

Then multiply by 10x to get the total magnification.

3.141592653589793238...

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**bobbym****Administrator**- From: Bumpkinland
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That is if you have a 10x ocular.

The 100x is an oil immersion and demands special techniques.

The reason you use two lenses is to cut down on distortion. Leeuwenhoek's idea was really strange and basically uses one very big ocular.

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**mathaholic****Member**- From: Juliania
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Yes.

3.141592653589793238...

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**bobbym****Administrator**- From: Bumpkinland
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You rarely see oculars pf more magnification of 10x or 15x. His ocular was around 200x or 300x.

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**mathaholic****Member**- From: Juliania
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Oh. Maybe more improvements to the microscope?

3.141592653589793238...

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**bobbym****Administrator**- From: Bumpkinland
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There are limits to what can be done with light or even ultraviolet light. The next advance was the electron microscope.

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**mathaholic****Member**- From: Juliania
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The electron? So, the compound is two lenses, right?

3.141592653589793238...

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**bobbym****Administrator**- From: Bumpkinland
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Light has a certain wavelength. Things close to that wavelength or smaller can not be seen clearly by it. The best light microscopes have about 2000 X magnification or so. To get more you have to use something smaller than light. The electron is a particle we can control and it is much smaller than the wavelength of light. It requires more specimen preparation but magnifications of over 100000 are possible.

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**mathaholic****Member**- From: Juliania
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Wow, big magnifications...

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**bobbym****Administrator**- From: Bumpkinland
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The difference though is that in the light microscope you can see the specimens alive, in the electron microscope they can only be viewed after lots of preparation and in a vacuum. So they are dead.

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**mathaholic****Member**- From: Juliania
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Okay.

3.141592653589793238...

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**bobbym****Administrator**- From: Bumpkinland
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This concludes our broadcast about microscopes.

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