(a) Vx(Px U Ey(Qy ^ Py)) = Px
(b) Ey(Ex((Px v Qx) ^ Px)) U Py)
note: let V= for all, U= that symbol that looks like a U rotated anti clockwise quarter of a turn, E=there exists, ^=and, v=or
and the equals sign in the first line is meant to be 'logically equivalent to.
to me, all the variables look bound, but something tells me that's not right.