a - A pair of dice is thrown 11 times. What is the probabiliy that the eleven possible values of their sum are obtained once each (this can be solved by simple probability theory).
b - if the pair of dice is thrown 12 times, what is the probability that the eleven possible values of their sum are obtained at least once each
In mathematics, you don't understand things. You just get used to them.
I agree with you regarding the satisfaction and importance of actually computing some numbers. I can't tell you how often I see time and money wasted because someone didn't bother to run the numbers.