7. Quarks and leptons

Quarks and leptons are the smallest form of particles. Prtons and neutrons are made of quarks, and electrons are simply leptons.Can someone complete this? I don't have time now.

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei. Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, which include baryons (such as protons and neutrons) and mesons, or in quark–gluon plasmas. For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of hadrons.

Quarks have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge, mass, color charge, and spin. They are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces (electromagnetism, gravitation, strong interaction, and weak interaction), as well as the only known particles whose electric charges are not integer multiples of the elementary charge.

In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin 1⁄2) that does not undergo strong interactions. Two main classes of leptons exist, charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos). Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium, while neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed. The best known of all leptons is the electron.

8. Isobar : Meteorology and Physics/Chemistry:

a) An isobar is a line of equal or constant pressure on a graph, plot, or map; an isopleth or contour line of pressure. More accurately, isobars are lines drawn on a map joining places of equal average atmospheric pressure reduced to sea level for a specified period of time. In meteorology, the barometric pressures shown are reduced to sea level, not the surface pressures at the map locations. The distribution of isobars is closely related to the magnitude and direction of the wind field, and can be used to predict future weather patterns. Isobars are commonly used in television weather reporting.

b) Isobars are atoms (nuclides) of different chemical elements that have the same number of nucleons. Correspondingly, isobars differ in atomic number (or number of protons) but have the same mass number. An example of a series of isobars would be

and . While the nuclei of these nuclides all contain 40 nucleons, they contain varying numbers of protons and neutrons.The term "isobars" (originally "isobares") for nuclides was suggested by Alfred Walter Stewart in 1918. It is derived from the Greek word isos, meaning "equal" and baros, meaning "weight".

]]>Quarks and leptons are the smallest form of particles. Prtons and neutrons are made of quarks, and electrons are simply leptons.

Can someone complete this? I don't have time now.

ganesh wrote:3.

* Scalar (physics), a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number

* Lorentz scalar, a quantity in the theory of relativity which is invariant under a Lorentz transformation

* Pseudoscalar, a quantity representable by a mathematical scalar that reacts sensitively to transformations changing the orientation of coordinate systems, e.g. improper rotations, or an object in Clifford algebras and similar settings

* Scalar particle in physics is a boson subatomic particle whose spin equals zero.Also,

In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space. The scalar may either be a (dimensionless) mathematical number or a physical quantity. In a physical context, scalar fields are required to be independent of the choice of reference frame, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same absolute point in space (or spacetime) regardless of their respective points of origin. Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field. These fields are the subject of scalar field theory.

I think you skipped #2.

See #2.

6. In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which the values for certain pairs of physical quantities of a particle, such as position, x, and momentum, p, can be predicted from initial conditions. Such variable pairs are known as complementary variables or canonically conjugate variables, and, depending on interpretation, the uncertainty principle limits to what extent such conjugate properties maintain their approximate meaning, as the mathematical framework of quantum physics does not support the notion of simultaneously well-defined conjugate properties expressed by a single value. The uncertainty principle implies that it is in general not possible to predict the value of a quantity with arbitrary certainty, even if all initial conditions are specified.

Introduced first in 1927 by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg, the uncertainty principle states that the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be predicted from initial conditions, and vice versa.

]]>3.

* Scalar (physics), a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number

* Lorentz scalar, a quantity in the theory of relativity which is invariant under a Lorentz transformation

* Pseudoscalar, a quantity representable by a mathematical scalar that reacts sensitively to transformations changing the orientation of coordinate systems, e.g. improper rotations, or an object in Clifford algebras and similar settings

* Scalar particle in physics is a boson subatomic particle whose spin equals zero.Also,

In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space. The scalar may either be a (dimensionless) mathematical number or a physical quantity. In a physical context, scalar fields are required to be independent of the choice of reference frame, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same absolute point in space (or spacetime) regardless of their respective points of origin. Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field. These fields are the subject of scalar field theory.

I think you skipped #2.

]]>Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that infect organisms from pangolins and bats to humans. There are 2 subgroups: Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus. The human coronavriuses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 are part of the group betacoronavirus. They primarily infect lung cells but can also infect any cells with a (certain) protein.

5. e=mc^2

This is Einstein's famous equation that solves for energy. Its meaning is:

Energy equals mass times the speed of light squared.]]>

* Scalar (physics), a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number

* Lorentz scalar, a quantity in the theory of relativity which is invariant under a Lorentz transformation

* Pseudoscalar, a quantity representable by a mathematical scalar that reacts sensitively to transformations changing the orientation of coordinate systems, e.g. improper rotations, or an object in Clifford algebras and similar settings

* Scalar particle in physics is a boson subatomic particle whose spin equals zero.

Also,

In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space. The scalar may either be a (dimensionless) mathematical number or a physical quantity. In a physical context, scalar fields are required to be independent of the choice of reference frame, meaning that any two observers using the same units will agree on the value of the scalar field at the same absolute point in space (or spacetime) regardless of their respective points of origin. Examples used in physics include the temperature distribution throughout space, the pressure distribution in a fluid, and spin-zero quantum fields, such as the Higgs field. These fields are the subject of scalar field theory.

]]>Distance is the length that an object travels. Displacement is the length from the starting point the the end point. So if a person runs around a 300 meter track 3 times and starts and ends at the same point, the distance is 300*3=900, but the displacement is 0 since the starting point and the end point are at thee same point, so the distance is 0.]]>