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## #1 Re: Help Me ! » Formula of histogram » 2013-08-12 00:56:36

hmm .. and Who did define that formula?
I can need to know author and its paper. I can't find.
Thanks

## #2 Help Me ! » Formula of histogram » 2013-08-11 23:54:55

tina123
Replies: 3

Can anyone please explain me formula of histogram defined in this wiki link
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histogram

We say that histogram is the counts of observation in bins.
So Let say if bins are from 0 to 179. then what does mean by mi in the formula?
i think n is the counts of observation.

Kindly, explain it. thanks

Expecting a fast response
Thanks

## #3 Help Me ! » meaning of mean, mean as cluster, mean as centriod » 2013-07-30 13:52:19

tina123
Replies: 3

What does mean by mean?
What is the actual meaning of mean?
Let say you have 10 points like this

9, 5 , 8,10,8,7,11,8,4,6,9,11,4

Where would be the mean?

another example

9, 5 , 8,10,8,7,11,8,4,178,9,11,20

Kindly, tell where would be the mean?

Can we say that mean value represents the all number of values?
or we will say that mean is the average of the nearest number?

like in this example
9, 5 , 8,10,8,7,11,8,4,6,9,11,4
mean would near to these values
like in this example,.
9, 5 , 8,10,8,7,11,8,4,178,9,11,20
mean would be near the values but would not go to the so different values with others . like 20 and 178..i meant outlair.

Can we say that mean represent the cluster?

Can we say that mean represent the cluster?

Mean is also called centro-id of points. Right ,

## #4 Re: Help Me ! » define histogram mathematically » 2013-07-03 21:20:35

Yes, I understand this .. thanks Bob..

bob bundy wrote:

hi Tina123

If you have numeric data collected over varying range sizes, (eg.  Number of calls to a switch board lasting 0-1min ; 1-2min ; 2-5min ; 5-10min etc) it would be misleading to use a bar chart because there would be a bias towards the larger ranges.

So a new frequency, called the relative frequency (or frequency density), is defined to unbias the figures:

Thus the area of each histogram bar is proportional to the recorded frequencies.

The histogram below shows varying range sizes rather well.

It comes from:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesi … rev3.shtml

If it would help I will make up another example to show the correct use of a histogram.

Bob

## #5 Help Me ! » define histogram mathematically » 2013-07-02 00:48:08

tina123
Replies: 2

How can we define histogram mathematically?
I need to define histogram in form of Equation. Can anyone please help me to do it,.
thanks

## #6 Help Me ! » Logics in maths equations » 2012-10-10 15:38:25

tina123
Replies: 2

Please guide me how to understand the maths equation logic  ?

please give me one example with logical explanation that would help me to capture logic from equations . thanks

## #7 Help Me ! » Is there difference of floating values correct techtinally ? » 2012-10-02 17:51:43

tina123
Replies: 0

Hy guys ,

I have these  floating values of hisogram from bin range 0 to 179 . and its difference of bin2 to  bin1 is given,

Index @ 0 : 63   =     diff -->   -22
Index @ 1 : 41   =     diff -->   -15
Index @ 2 : 25   =     diff -->   -8
Index @ 3 : 16   =     diff -->   -4
Index @ 4 : 12   =     diff -->   -3
Index @ 5 : 9   =     diff -->   -2
Index @ 6 : 6   =     diff -->   -1
Index @ 7 : 4   =     diff -->   -1
Index @ 8 : 3   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 9 : 3   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 10 : 3   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 11 : 3   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 12 : 3   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 13 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 14 : 1   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 15 : 1   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 16 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 17 : 1   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 18 : 1   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 19 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 20 : 1   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 21 : 1   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 22 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 23 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 24 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 25 : 1   =     diff -->   0
//----------------------------------
Index @ 26 : 1   =     diff -->   1
Index @ 27 : 3   =     diff -->   3
Index @ 28 : 6   =     diff -->   2
//------------------------------------
Index @ 29 : 8   =     diff -->   0
//-----------------------------------------
Index @ 30 : 8   =     diff -->   -1
//----------------------------------------
Index @ 31 : 6   =     diff -->   0
//-----------------------------------------
Index @ 32 : 6   =     diff -->   2
Index @ 33 : 8   =     diff -->   4
Index @ 34 : 12   =     diff -->   2
/-----------------------------------------
Index @ 35 : 14   =     diff -->   -1
Index @ 36 : 13   =     diff -->   -3
Index @ 37 : 9   =     diff -->   -1
//--------------------------------------
Index @ 38 : 7   =     diff -->   3
Index @ 39 : 11   =     diff -->   8
Index @ 40 : 20   =     diff -->   6
//-----------------------------------
Index @ 41 : 26   =     diff -->   0
//-------------------------------------------
Index @ 42 : 26   =     diff -->   -6
Index @ 43 : 19   =     diff -->   -7
Index @ 44 : 12   =     diff -->   -5
Index @ 45 : 7   =     diff -->   -2
//-------------------------------------------
Index @ 46 : 5   =     diff -->   3
Index @ 47 : 8   =     diff -->   8
Index @ 48 : 16   =     diff -->   5
//--------------------------------------------
Index @ 49 : 22   =     diff -->   -1
Index @ 50 : 21   =     diff -->   -5
Index @ 51 : 16   =     diff -->   -4
Index @ 52 : 12   =     diff -->   -1
//------------------------------------
Index @ 53 : 11   =     diff -->   0
//-------------------------------------
Index @ 54 : 10   =     diff -->   -1
Index @ 55 : 8   =     diff -->   -2
Index @ 56 : 6   =     diff -->   -2
Index @ 57 : 3   =     diff -->   -1
//----------------------------------------
Index @ 58 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 59 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 60 : 1   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 61 : 0   =     diff -->   0
//-------------------------------------
Index @ 62 : 0   =     diff -->   1
Index @ 63 : 1   =     diff -->   1
Index @ 64 : 3   =     diff -->   1
//-----------------------------------------
Index @ 65 : 5   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 66 : 5   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 67 : 4   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 68 : 3   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 69 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 70 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 71 : 1   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 72 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 73 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 74 : 3   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 75 : 3   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 76 : 2   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 77 : 1   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 78 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 79 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 80 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 81 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 82 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 83 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 84 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 85 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 86 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 87 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 88 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 89 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 90 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 91 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 92 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 93 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 94 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 95 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 96 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 97 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 98 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 99 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 100 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 101 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 102 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 103 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 104 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 105 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 106 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 107 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 108 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 109 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 110 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 111 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 112 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 113 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 114 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 115 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 116 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 117 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 118 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 119 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 120 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 121 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 122 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 123 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 124 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 125 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 126 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 127 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 128 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 129 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 130 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 131 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 132 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 133 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 134 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 135 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 136 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 137 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 138 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 139 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 140 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 141 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 142 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 143 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 144 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 145 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 146 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 147 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 148 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 149 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 150 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 151 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 152 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 153 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 154 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 155 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 156 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 157 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 158 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 159 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 160 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 161 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 162 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 163 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 164 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 165 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 166 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 167 : 0   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 168 : 1   =     diff -->   0
Index @ 169 : 1   =     diff -->   0
//------------------------------
Index @ 170 : 2   =     diff -->   1
Index @ 171 : 3   =     diff -->   1
Index @ 172 : 4   =     diff -->   1
Index @ 173 : 6   =     diff -->   1
Index @ 174 : 8   =     diff -->   2
Index @ 175 : 10   =     diff -->   1
//-----------------------------------------------
Index @ 176 : 11   =     diff -->   0
//---------------------------------------------
Index @ 177 : 11   =     diff -->   -1
Index @ 178 : 9   =     diff -->   -2

My question is ...
Is the difference technically ok ? ?
if yes then how  ?
I think my difference is wrong .
for example difference of bin12th and bin13th . . difference is wrong there .
IS it really wrong technically if yes then how  and why ?

## #8 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-30 05:39:03

hy ,, its a just Bayes theorem on histogram data .

## #9 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-30 04:42:06

and how about Bayesian formula in histogram post@1 .
As Bayesian formula can show that posterior probability is proportional to density value .
That's y i am interested in Bayesian formula .

## #10 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-30 04:35:09

How can we compute probability of each bin ?
Also how  can we compute Bayesian formula in histogram post #1 .
As Bayesian formula can show that posterior probability is proportional to density value .

## #11 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-30 04:13:30

hy Bobby, from post #1, how can we get probability  ?

## #12 Help Me ! » bayesian formula on histogram » 2012-09-30 04:04:20

tina123
Replies: 1

How bayesian formula  can applied on histogram ?
Can any one explain me with an example . thanks

## #13 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 03:17:15

bobbym wrote:

Count up each type of data value the way I did in post #4. That is how you get those peaks and valleys. You do not need the histogram.

Oh u are making me confuse . leave it . now .
I need to work with  histogram .

## #14 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 03:13:10

yes i already showed u data values in my #post 1 .

## #15 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 03:06:17

hy no .. . How did say that its peak . We can see it graphically ,
but i still do't understand how can say its out peak .

## #16 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 02:39:06

tina123 wrote:
bobbym wrote:

Do you see what a peak is?

as i understand peak is maximum value ..  and 20 , 21 are the maximum . .

so those are peaks

Oh yar we are still not able to decide .

## #17 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 02:37:55

bobbym wrote:

Do you see what a peak is?

as i understand peak is maximum value ..  and 20 , 21 are the maximum . .

so those are peaks

## #18 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 02:23:36

bobbym wrote:

I have marked off two peaks, I can not see what number they are.

oh i gave histogram values too with its horizontal axis .

2nd peak value is 21 . and 1st peak value is 20 .

## #19 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 02:17:47

bobbym wrote:

I can not see bins it it too small.

Well actually i maked histogram in range 0 to 180 . and to make histogram i consider bins 180 . so bins size is so small .
and after removing some noise and part of histogram .
i got the histogram that i posted in #p1 ..
so now our left bins are in range 0 to 53 .

## #20 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 02:03:11

bobbym wrote:

You say that on the x axis we go from 0 to 53. Does that mean the whole black area or just the red?

Well  all bins are in red color .

## #21 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 01:58:27

well in my #1 post ,
on axis .. we have index 0 to 53
and on y  axis ,. we have , 0 to 21 .

like on axis 0 will  have bar 19 length .. like that

## #22 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 01:36:33

bobbym wrote:

Hi;

Want to see another example?

Well  i understand with an example that recently u mentioned .
but i did not  get valley and peak in my #1 post .
Could you please make my mind clear from histogram of post #1 .
thanks

## #23 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 01:34:39

bobbym wrote:

Hi tina123;

Yes, minimum occurence would be a valley. There could be more than one.

Hy Bobvym , I am confused . Could u tell me peaks and valleys in the same theory that u recently explained .
thanks .

## #24 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 01:30:22

anonimnystefy wrote:

Hi tina123

What exactly would you consider peaks and valleys in the picture in your first post?

Well if we consider only useful data . then its from i = 0 ; i < 46 ; i++ , get minimum value. it would be 2 . which will be our valley .  but for and 21 will be our maxmum peak .

that 's by considering minimum and maximum histogram value .

But i still not understand correctly

## #25 Re: Help Me ! » detect peaks and valleys » 2012-09-22 01:14:15

So i think  check occurrence  of each data ..  valley will be there where occurrence would be minimum,
and maximum occurrence would be peak .
but for  example if 1 is repeated 4 time 10 is repeated 3  . then we would have two  peaks at 1 having 4 occurence and 10 having 3 occurrence . and say 5 have occurrence 2 .. so minimum occurence would be our valley .
right  ?